Abstract:
The fractional Hamiltonian analysis of 1+1 dimensional field theory is investigated and the fractional Ostrogradski's formulation is obtained. The fractional path integral of both simple harmonic oscillator with an acceleration-squares part and a damped oscillator are analyzed. The classical results are obtained when fractional derivatives are replaced with the integer order derivatives.

Abstract:
We obtain approximation formulas for fractional integrals and derivatives of Riemann-Liouville and Marchaud types with a variable fractional order. The approximations involve integer-order derivatives only. An estimation for the error is given. The efficiency of the approximation method is illustrated with examples. As applications, we show how the obtained results are useful to solve differential equations and problems of the calculus of variations that depend on fractional derivatives of Marchaud type.

Abstract:
We give stability and consistency results for higher order Gr\"unwald-type formulae used in the approximation of solutions to fractional-in-space partial differential equations. We use a new Carlson-type inequality for periodic Fourier multipliers to gain regularity and stability results. We then generalise the theory to the case where the first derivative operator is replaced by the generator of a bounded group on an arbitrary Banach space.

Abstract:
This article deals with higher order Caputo fractional variational problems with the presence of delay in the state variables and their integer higher order derivatives.

Abstract:
In this work we study the solutions to some fractional higher-order equations. Special cases in which time-fractional derivatives take integer values are also examined and the explicit solutions are presented. Such solutions can be expressed by means of the transition laws of stable subordinators and their inverse processes. In particular we establish connections between fractional and higher-order equations.

Abstract:
We introduce complex order fractional derivatives in models that describe viscoelastic materials. This can not be carried out unrestrictedly, and therefore we derive, for the first time, real valued compatibility constraints, as well as physical constraints that lead to acceptable models. As a result, we introduce a new form of complex order fractional derivative. Also, we consider a fractional differential equation with complex derivatives, and study its solvability. Results obtained for stress relaxation and creep are illustrated by several numerical examples.

Abstract:
The problems that are connected with Lagrangians which depend on higher order derivatives (namely additional degrees of freedom, unbound energy from below, etc.) are absent if effective Lagrangians are considered because the equations of motion may be used to eliminate all higher order time derivatives from the effective interaction term. The application of the equations of motion can be realized by performing field transformations that involve derivatives of the fields. Using the Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangians (Ostrogradsky formalism), Lagrangians that are related by such transformations are shown to be physically equivalent (at the classical and at the quantum level). The equivalence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian path integral quantization (Matthews's theorem) is proven for effective higher order Lagrangians. Effective interactions of massive vector fields involving higher order derivatives are examined within gauge noninvariant models as well as within (linearly or nonlinearly realized) spontaneously broken gauge theories. The Stueckelberg formalism, which relates gauge noninvariant to gauge invariant Lagrangians, becomes reformulated within the Ostrogradsky formalism.

Abstract:
We study an initial value problem for a coupled Caputo type nonlinear fractional differential system of higher order. As a first problem, the nonhomogeneous terms in the coupled fractional differential system depend on the fractional derivatives of lower orders only. Then the nonhomogeneous terms in the fractional differential system are allowed to depend on the unknown functions together with the fractional derivative of lower orders. Our method of analysis is based on the reduction of the given system to an equivalent system of integral equations. Applying the nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder, we prove the existence of solutions of the fractional differential system. The uniqueness of solutions of the fractional differential system is established by using the Banach contraction principle. An illustrative example is also presented.

Abstract:
We present a new numerical tool to solve partial differential equations involving Caputo derivatives of fractional variable order. Three Caputo-type fractional operators are considered, and for each one of them an approximation formula is obtained in terms of standard (integer-order) derivatives only. Estimations for the error of the approximations are also provided. We then compare the numerical approximation of some test function with its exact fractional derivative. We end with an exemplification of how the presented methods can be used to solve partial fractional differential equations of variable order.

Abstract:
We argue relations between the Aharonov invariants and Tamanoi's Schwarzian derivatives of higher order and give a recursion formula for Tamanoi's Schwarzians. Then we propose a definition of invariant Schwarzian derivatives of a nonconstant holomorphic map between Riemann surfaces with conformal metrics. We show a recursion fomula also for our invariant Schwarzians.