Abstract:
We express any Courant algebroid bracket by means of a metric connection, and construct a Courant algebroid structure on any orthogonal, Whitney sum E⊕C where E is a given Courant algebroid and C is a flat, pseudo-Euclidean vector bundle. Then, we establish the general expression of the bracket of a transitive Courant algebroid, that is, a Courant algebroid with a surjective anchor, and describe a class of transitive Courant algebroids which are Whitney sums of a Courant subalgebroid with neutral metric and Courant-like bracket and a pseudo-Euclidean vector bundle with a flat, metric connection. In particular, this class contains all the transitive Courant algebroids of minimal rank; for these, the flat term mentioned above is zero. The results extend to regular Courant algebroids, that is, Courant algebroids with a constant rank anchor. The paper ends with miscellaneous remarks and an appendix on Dirac linear spaces.

Abstract:
We express any Courant algebroid bracket by means of a metric connection, and construct a Courant algebroid structure on any orthogonal Whitney sum $E\oplus C$ where E is a given Courant algebroid and C is a flat, pseudo- Euclidean vector bundle. Then, we establish the general expression of the bracket of a transitive Courant algebroid, i.e., a Courant algebroid with a surjective anchor, and describe a class of transitive Courant algebroids which are Whitney sums of a Courant subalgebroid with neutral metric and Courant-like bracket and a pseudo-Euclidean vector bundle with a flat, metric connection. In particular, this class contains all the transitive Courant algebroids of minimal rank; for these, the flat term mentioned above is zero. The results extend to regular Courant algebroids, i.e., Courant algebroids with a constant rank anchor. The paper ends with miscellaneous remarks and an appendix on Dirac linear spaces.

Abstract:
In this thesis we develop the notion of LA-Courant algebroids, the infinitesimal analogue of multiplicative Courant algebroids. Specific applications include the integration of q- Poisson (d, g)-structures, and the reduction of Courant algebroids. We also introduce the notion of pseudo-Dirac structures, (possibly non-Lagrangian) subbundles W \subseteq E of a Courant algebroid such that the Courant bracket endows W naturally with the structure of a Lie algebroid. Specific examples of pseudo-Dirac structures arise in the theory of q-Poisson (d, g)-structures.

Abstract:
We introduce the notion of matched pairs of Courant algebroids and give several examples arising naturally from complex manifolds, holomorphic Courant algebroids, and certain regular Courant algebroids. We consider the matched sum of two Dirac subbundles, one in each of two Courant algebroids forming a matched pair.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to studying some properties of the Courant algebroids: we explain the so-called "conducting bundle construction" and use it to attach the Courant algebroid to Dixmier-Douady gerbe (following ideas of P. Severa). We remark that WZNW-Poisson condition of Klimcik and Strobl (math.SG/0104189) is the same as Dirac structure in some particular Courant algebroid. We propose the construction of the Lie algebroid on the loop space starting from the Lie algebroid on the manifold and conjecture that this construction applied to the Dirac structure above should give the Lie algebroid of symmetries in the WZNW-Poisson $\sigma$-model, we show that it is indeed true in the particular case of Poisson $\sigma$-model.

Abstract:
Hypercomplex structures on Courant algebroids unify holomorphic symplectic structures and usual hypercomplex structures. In this note, we prove the equivalence of two characterizations of hypercomplex structures on Courant algebroids, one in terms of Nijenhuis concomitants and the other in terms of (almost) torsionfree connections for which each of the three complex structures is parallel.

Abstract:
In this paper, we describe an integration of exact Courant algebroids to symplectic 2-groupoids, and we show that the differentiation procedure from [26] inverts our integration.

Abstract:
We introduce the notion of hypersymplectic structure on a Courant algebroid and we prove the existence of a one-to-one correspondence between hypersymplectic and hyperk\"ahler structures. This correspondence provides a simpler way to define a hyperk\"ahler structure on a Courant algebroid. We show that hypersymplectic structures on Courant algebroids encompass hyperk\"ahler and hyperk\"ahler structures with torsion on Lie algebroids. In the latter, the torsion existing at the Lie algebroid level is incorporated in the Courant structure. Cases of hypersymplectic structures on Courant algebroids which are doubles of Lie, quasi-Lie and proto-Lie bialgebroids are investigated.

Abstract:
We construct a generalization of Courant algebroids which are classified by the third cohomology group $H^3(A,V)$, where $A$ is a Lie Algebroid, and $V$ is an $A$-module. We see that both Courant algebroids and $\mathcal{E}^1(M)$ structures are examples of them. Finally we introduce generalized CR structures on a manifold, which are a generalization of generalized complex structures, and show that every CR structure and contact structure is an example of a generalized CR structure.

Abstract:
We study the (standard) cohomology $H^\bullet_{st}(E)$ of a Courant algebroid $E$. We prove that if $E$ is transitive, the standard cohomology coincides with the naive cohomology $H_{naive}^\bullet(E)$ as conjectured by Stienon and Xu. For a general Courant algebroid we define a spectral sequence converging to its standard cohomology. If $E$ is with split base, we prove that there exists a natural transgression homomorphism $T_3$ (with image in $H^3_{naive}(E)$) which, together with the naive cohomology, gives all $H^\bullet_{st}(E)$. For generalized exact Courant algebroids, we give an explicit formula for $T_3$ depending only on the \v{S}evera characteristic clas of $E$.