Abstract:
We provide explicit formulas for the number of ad-nilpotent ideals of a Borel subalgebra of a complex simple Lie algebra having fixed class of nilpotence.

Abstract:
We study the combinatorics of ad-nilpotent ideals of a Borel subalgebra of $sl(n+1,\Bbb C)$. We provide an inductive method for calculating the class of nilpotence of these ideals and formulas for the number of ideals having a given class of nilpotence. We study the relationships between these results and the combinatorics of Dyck paths, based upon a remarkable bijection between ad-nilpotent ideals and Dyck paths. Finally, we propose a (q,t)-analogue of the Catalan number $C_n$. These (q,t)-Catalan numbers count on the one hand ad-nilpotent ideals with respect to dimension and class of nilpotence, and on the other hand admit interpretations in terms of natural statistics on Dyck paths.

Abstract:
For an ad-nilpotent ideal $i$ of a Borel subalgebra of $sl_{l+1}(C)$, we denote by $I_i$ the maximal subset $I$ of the set of simple roots such that $i$ is an ad-nilpotent ideal of the standard parabolic subalgebra $p_I$. We use the bijection given by G.E. Andrews, C. Krattenthaler, L. Orsina and P. Papi between the set of ad-nilpotent ideals of a Borel subalgebra in $sl_{l+1}(C)$ and the set of Dyck paths of length $2l+2$, to explicit a bijection between ad-nilpotent ideals $i$ of the Borel subalgebra such that the cardinality of $I_i$ is equal to $r$ and the Dyck paths of length $2l+2$ having $r$ occurence "udu". We obtain also a duality between antichains of cardinality $p$ and $l-p$ in the set of positive roots.

Abstract:
We extend the results of Cellini-Papi on the characterizations of nilpotent and abelian ideals of a Borel subalgebra to parabolic subalgebras of a simple Lie algebra. These characterizations are given in terms of elements of the affine Weyl group and faces of alcoves. In the case of a parabolic subalgebra of a classical Lie algebra, we give formulas for the number of these ideals.

Abstract:
In this paper, the main objective is to compare the abelian subalgebras and ideals of maximal dimension for finite-dimensional supersolvable Lie algebras. We characterise the maximal abelian subalgebras of solvable Lie algebras and study solvable Lie algebras containing an abelian subalgebra of codimension 2. Finally, we prove that nilpotent Lie algebras with an abelian subalgebra of codimension 3 contain an abelian ideal with the same dimension, provided that the characteristic of the underlying field is not two. Throughout the paper, we also give several examples to clarify some results.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the maximal dimension $\alpha(L)$ of abelian subalgebras and the maximal dimension $\beta(L)$ of abelian ideals of m-dimensional 3-Lie algebras $L$ over an algebraically closed field. We show that these dimensions do not coincide if the field is of characteristic zero, even for nilpotent 3-Lie algebras. We then prove that 3-Lie algebras with $\beta(L) = m-2$ are 2-step solvable (see definition in Section 2). Furthermore, we give a precise description of these 3-Lie algebras with one or two dimensional derived algebras. In addition, we provide a classification of 3-Lie algebras with $\alpha(L)=\dim L-2$. We also obtain the classification of 3-Lie algebras with $\alpha(L)=\dim L-1$ and with their derived algebras of one dimension.

Abstract:
Denote by $U_{\mathcal I}({\mathcal H})$ the group of all unitary operators in ${\bf 1}+{\mathcal I}$ where ${\mathcal H}$ is a separable infinite-dimensional complex Hilbert space and ${\mathcal I}$ is any two-sided ideal of ${\mathcal B}({\mathcal H})$. A Cartan subalgebra ${\mathcal C}$ of ${\mathcal I}$ is defined in this paper as a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of~${\mathcal I}$ and its conjugacy class is defined herein as the set of Cartan subalgebras $\{V{\mathcal C} V^*\mid V\in U_{\mathcal I}({\mathcal H})\}$. For nonzero proper ideals ${\mathcal I}$ we construct an uncountable family of Cartan subalgebras of ${\mathcal I}$ with distinct conjugacy classes. This is in contrast to the by now classical observation of P. de La Harpe who noted that when ${\mathcal I}$ is any of the Schatten ideals, there is precisely one conjugacy class under the action of the full group of unitary operators on~${\mathcal B}$. In the case when ${\mathcal I}$ is a symmetrically normed ideal and is the dual of some Banach space, we show how the conjugacy classes of the Cartan subalgebras of ${\mathcal I}$ become smooth manifolds modeled on suitable Banach spaces. These manifolds are endowed with groups of smooth transformations given by the action of the group $U_{\mathcal I}({\mathcal H})$ on the orbits, and are equivariantly diffeomorphic to each other. We then find that there exists a unique diffeomorphism class of full flag manifolds of $U_{\mathcal I}({\mathcal H})$ and we give its construction.

Abstract:
This paper may be viewed as having two aims. First, we continue our study of algebras of operators on a Hilbert space which have a contractive approximate identity, this time from a more Banach algebraic point of view. Namely, we mainly investigate topics concerned with the ideal structure, and hereditary subalgebras (HSA's), which are in some sense generalization of ideals. Second, we study properties of operator algebras which are hereditary subalgebras in their bidual, or equivalently which are `weakly compact'. We also give several examples answering natural questions that arise in such an investigation.

Abstract:
The number of ad-nilpotent ideals of the Borel subalgebra of the classical Lie algebra of type B_n is determined using combinatorial arguments involving a generalization of Dyck-paths. We also solve a similar problem for the untwisted affine Lie algebra of type ~B_n, where we instead enumerate a certain class of ideals called basic ideals. This leads to an explicit formula for the number of basic ideals in ~B_n, which gives rise to a new integer sequence.

Abstract:
We prove that the dimensions of coinvariants of certain nilpotent subalgebras of the Virasoro algebra do not change under deformation in the case of irreducible representations of (2,2r+1) minimal models. We derive a combinatorial description of these representations and the Gordon identities from this result.