Abstract:
The main objective of the present work is to study the negative spectrum of (differential) Laplace operators on metric graphs as well as their resolvents and associated heat semigroups. We prove an upper bound on the number of negative eigenvalues and a lower bound on the spectrum of Laplace operators. Also we provide a sufficient condition for the associated heat semigroup to be positivity preserving.

Abstract:
Directed graphs have long been used to gain understanding of the structure of semigroups, and recently the structure of directed graph semigroups has been investigated resulting in a characterization theorem and an analog of Fruct's Theorem. We investigate four inverse semigroups defined over undirected graphs constructed from the notions of subgraph, vertex induced subgraph, rooted tree induced subgraph, and rooted path induced subgraph. We characterize the structure of the semilattice of idempotents and lattice of ideals of these four inverse semigroups. Finally, we prove a characterization theorem that states that every graph has a unique associated inverse semigroup up to isomorphism.

Abstract:
We study heat semigroups generated by self-adjoint Laplace operators on metric graphs characterized by the property that the local scattering matrices associated with each vertex of the graph are independent from the spectral parameter. For such operators we prove a representation for the heat kernel as a sum over all walks with given initial and terminal edges. Using this representation a trace formula for heat semigroups is proven. Applications of the trace formula to inverse spectral and scattering problems are also discussed.

Abstract:
We study the contraction semigroups of elliptic quadratic differential operators. Elliptic quadratic differential operators are the non-selfadjoint operators defined in the Weyl quantization by complex-valued elliptic quadratic symbols. We establish in this paper that under the assumption of ellipticity, as soon as the real part of their Weyl symbols is a non-zero non-positive quadratic form, the norm of contraction semigroups generated by these operators decays exponentially in time.

Abstract:
We give a semigroup characterization of kaleidoscopical graphs. A connected graph Г (considered as a metric space with the path metric) is called kaleidoscopical if there is a vertex coloring of Г which is bijective on each unit ball.

Abstract:
Consider --- for the generator \({-}A\) of a symmetric contraction semigroup over some measure space $\mathrm{X}$, $1\le p < \infty$, $q$ the dual exponent and given measurable functions $F_j,\: G_j : \mathbb{C}^d \to \mathbb{C}$ --- the statement: $$ \mathrm{Re}\, \sum_{j=1}^m \int_{\mathrm{X}} A F_j(\mathbf{f}) \cdot G_j(\mathbf{f}) \,\,\ge \,\,0 $$ {\em for all $\mathbb{C}^d$-valued measurable functions $\mathbf{f}$ on $\mathrm{X}$ such that $F_j(\mathbf{f}) \in \mathrm{dom}(A_p)$ and $G_j(\mathbf{f}) \in \mathrm{L}^q(\mathrm{X})$ for all $j$.} It is shown that this statement is valid in general if it is valid for $\mathrm{X}$ being a two-point Bernoulli $(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{1}{2})$-space and $A$ being of a special form. As a consequence we obtain a new proof for the optimal angle of $\mathrm{L}^{p}$-analyticity for such semigroups, which is essentially the same as in the well-known sub-Markovian case. The proof of the main theorem is a combination of well-known reduction techniques and some representation results about operators on $\mathrm{C}(K)$-spaces. One focus of the paper lies on presenting these auxiliary techniques and results in great detail.

Abstract:
In this paper we introduced the concepts of cyclic contraction on S- metric space and proved some fixed point theorems on S- metric space. Our presented results are proper generalization of Sedghi et al. [14]. We also give an example in support of our theorem.

Abstract:
In this paper, we present the generalization of B-contraction and C-contraction due to Sehgal and Hicks respectively. We also study some properties of C-contraction in probabilistic metric space.

Abstract:
We introduce the notion of cone rectangular metric space and prove {sc Banach} contraction mapping principle in cone rectangular metric space setting. Our result extends recent known results.

Abstract:
This paper establishes connections between the structure of a semigroup and the minimum spans of distance labellings of its Cayley graphs. We show that certain general restrictions on the minimum spans are equivalent to the semigroup being combinatorial, and that other restrictions are equivalent to the semigroup being a right zero band. We obtain a description of the structure of all semigroups $S$ and their subsets $C$ such that $\Cay(S,C)$ is a disjoint union of complete graphs, and show that this description is also equivalent to several restrictions on the minimum span of $\Cay(S,C)$. We then describe all graphs with minimum spans satisfying the same restrictions, and give examples to show that a fairly straightforward upper bound for the minimum spans of the underlying undirected graphs of Cayley graphs turns out to be sharp even for the class of combinatorial semigroups.