Abstract:
We derive periodic multilayer absorbers with effective uniaxial properties similar to perfectly matched layers (PML). This approximate representation of PML is based on the effective medium theory and we call it an effective medium PML (EM-PML). We compare the spatial reflection spectrum of the layered absorbers to that of a PML material and demonstrate that after neglecting gain and magnetic properties, the absorber remains functional. This opens a route to create electromagnetic absorbers for real and not only numerical applications and as an example we introduce a layered absorber for the wavelength of $8$~$\mu$m made of SiO$_2$ and NaCl. We also show that similar cylindrical core-shell nanostructures derived from flat multilayers also exhibit very good absorptive and reflective properties despite the different geometry.

Abstract:
The perfectly matched layers (PML) and exterior complex scaling (ECS) methods for absorbing boundary conditions are analyzed using spectral decomposition. Both methods are derived through analytical continuations from unitary to contractive transformations. We find that the methods are mathematically and numerically distinct: ECS is complex stretching that rotates the operator's spectrum into the complex plane, whereas PML is a complex gauge transform which shifts the spectrum. Consequently, the schemes differ in their time-stability. Numerical examples are given.

Abstract:
This paper constructs perfectly matched layers (PML) for a system of 2D Coupled Nonlinear Schr\"odinger equations with mixed derivatives which arises in the modeling of gap solitons in nonlinear periodic structures with a non-separable linear part. The PML construction is performed in Laplace Fourier space via a modal analysis and can be viewed as a complex change of variables. The mixed derivatives cause the presence of waves with opposite phase and group velocities, which has previously been shown to cause instability of layer equations in certain types of hyperbolic problems. Nevertheless, here the PML is stable if the absorption function $\sigma$ lies below a specified threshold. The PML construction and analysis are carried out for the linear part of the system. Numerical tests are then performed in both the linear and nonlinear regimes checking convergence of the error with respect to the layer width and showing that the PML performs well even in many nonlinear simulations.

Abstract:
For numerical simulations of highly relativistic and transversely accelerated charged particles including radiation fast algorithms are needed. While the radiation in particle accelerators has wavelengths in the order of 100 um the computational domain has dimensions roughly 5 orders of magnitude larger resulting in very large mesh sizes. The particles are confined to a small area of this domain only. To resolve the smallest scales close to the particles subgrids are envisioned. For reasons of stability the alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme by D. N. Smithe et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 228 (2009) pp.7289-7299) for Maxwell equations has been adopted. At the boundary of the domain absorbing boundary conditions have to be employed to prevent reflection of the radiation. In this paper we show how the divergence preserving ADI scheme has to be formulated in perfectly matched layers (PML) and compare the performance in several scenarios.

Abstract:
We construct a perfectly matched absorbing layer for stationary Schrodinger equation with analytic slowly decaying potential in a periodic structure. We prove the unique solvability of the problem with perfectly matched layer of finite length and show that solution to this problem approximates a solution to the original problem with an error that exponentially tends to zero as the length of perfectly matched layer tends to infinity.

Abstract:
This paper introduces a new sweeping preconditioner for the iterative solution of the variable coefficient Helmholtz equation in two and three dimensions. The algorithms follow the general structure of constructing an approximate $LDL^t$ factorization by eliminating the unknowns layer by layer starting from an absorbing layer or boundary condition. The central idea of this paper is to approximate the Schur complement matrices of the factorization using moving perfectly matched layers (PMLs) introduced in the interior of the domain. Applying each Schur complement matrix is equivalent to solving a quasi-1D problem with a banded LU factorization in the 2D case and to solving a quasi-2D problem with a multifrontal method in the 3D case. The resulting preconditioner has linear application cost and the preconditioned iterative solver converges in a number of iterations that is essentially indefinite of the number of unknowns or the frequency. Numerical results are presented in both two and three dimensions to demonstrate the efficiency of this new preconditioner.

Abstract:
A new construction of an absorbing boundary condition for indefinite Helmholtz problems on unbounded domains is presented. This construction is based on a near-best uniform rational interpolant of the inverse square root function on the union of a negative and positive real interval, designed with the help of a classical result by Zolotarev. Using Krein's interpretation of a Stieltjes continued fraction, this interpolant can be converted into a three-term finite difference discretization of a perfectly matched layer (PML) which converges exponentially fast in the number of grid points. The convergence rate is asymptotically optimal for both propagative and evanescent wave modes. Several numerical experiments and illustrations are included.

Abstract:
In this paper we address the temporal energy growth associated with numerical approximations of the perfectly matched layer (PML) for Maxwell's equations in first order form. In the literature, several studies have shown that a numerical method which is stable in the absence of the PML can become unstable when the PML is introduced. We demonstrate in this paper that this instability can be directly related to numerical treatment of boundary conditions in the PML. First, at the continuous level, we establish the stability of the constant coefficient initial boundary value problem for the PML. To enable the construction of stable numerical boundary procedures, we derive energy estimates for the variable coefficient PML. Second, we develop a high order accurate and stable numerical approximation for the PML using summation--by--parts finite difference operators to approximate spatial derivatives and weak enforcement of boundary conditions using penalties. By constructing analogous discrete energy estimates we show discrete stability and convergence of the numerical method. Numerical experiments verify the theoretical results

Abstract:
The 3D Berenger's and uniaxial perfectly matched layers used for the truncation of the FDTD computations are theoretically investigated respectively in the discrete space, including numerical dispersion and impedance characteristics. Numerical dispersion for both PMLs is different from that of the FDTD equations in the normal medium due to the introduction of loss. The impedance in 3D homogeneous Berenger's PML medium is the same as that in the truncated normal medium even in the discrete space, however, the impedance in 3D homogenous UPML medium is different, but the discrepancy smoothly changes as the loss in the UPML medium slowly change. Those insights acquired can help to understand why both 3D PMLs can absorb the outgoing wave with arbitrary incidence, polarization, and frequency, but with different efficiency.

Abstract:
Discrete transparent boundary conditions (DTBC) and the Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) method for the realization of open boundary conditions in quantum device simulations are compared, based on the stationary and time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation. The comparison includes scattering state, wave packet, and transient scattering state simulations in one and two space dimensions. The Schr\"odinger equation is discretized by a second-order Crank-Nicolson method in case of DTBC. For the discretization with PML, symmetric second-, fourth, and sixth-order spatial approximations as well as Crank-Nicolson and classical Runge-Kutta time-integration methods are employed. In two space dimensions, a ring-shaped quantum waveguide device is simulated in the stationary and transient regime. As an application, a simulation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in this device is performed, showing the excitation of bound states localized in the ring region. The numerical experiments show that the results obtained from PML are comparable to those obtained using DTBC, while keeping the high numerical efficiency and flexibility as well as the ease of implementation of the former method.