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How can we think the complex?  [PDF]
Carlos Gershenson,Francis Heylighen
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: This chapter does not deal with specific tools and techniques for managing complex systems, but proposes some basic concepts that help us to think and speak about complexity. We review classical thinking and its intrinsic drawbacks when dealing with complexity. We then show how complexity forces us to build models with indeterminacy and unpredictability. However, we can still deal with the problems created in this way by being adaptive, and profiting from a complex system's capability for selforganization, and the distributed intelligence this may produce.
Transfinite Sequences of Continuous and Baire Class 1 Functions  [PDF]
Márton Elekes,Kenneth Kunen
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: The set of continuous or Baire class 1 functions defined on a metric space $X$ is endowed with the natural pointwise partial order. We investigate how the possible lengths of well-ordered monotone sequences (with respect to this order) depend on the space $X$.
How Can We Observe and Describe Chaos?  [PDF]
Andrzej Kossakowski,Masanori Ohya,Yosio Togawa
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: We propose a new approach to define chaos in dynamical systems from the point of view of Information Dynamics. Observation of chaos in reality depends upon how to observe it, for instance, how to take the scale in space and time. Therefore it is natural to abandon taking several mathematical limiting procedures. We take account of them, and chaos degree previously introduced is redefined in this paper.
How can we help minority nursing students?  [cached]
Nancy Carol Schoofs
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v2n3p154
Abstract: This article details the example of remediating an at-risk nursing student who failed two clinical rotations at a large university nursing program. It is a case of working with a minority student using six simulations and two clinical days in the hospital. The author describes the process of how the simulations and clinical experiences were used to assist the student in increasing her confidence and clinical abilities. In addition to the example of the student, an extensive literature review was done prior to working with the student. This aided the author not only in determining methods for assisting the student, but also in understanding the student’s culture and ethnicity. The authors of the nursing journal articles discuss the variety of at risk students categories and how faculty and advisors can help these students to be successful. Nursing faculty should find this article helpful in their work with at risk students because the remediation plan outlined could be adapted to help many different students with clinical difficulties.
How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?  [PDF]
J. Hansen
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to "tipping points" with unacceptable consequences, especially ice sheet disintegration with sea level rise out of humanity's control, has a bright side. It implies an imperative: we must find a way to keep the CO2 amount so low that it will also avert other detrimental effects that had begun to seem inevitable, e.g., ocean acidification, loss of most alpine glaciers and thus the water supply for millions of people, and shifting of climatic zones with consequent extermination of species. Here I outline from a scientific perspective actions needed to achieve low limits on CO2 and global warming. These changes are technically feasible and have ancillary benefits. Achievement of needed changes requires overcoming the spurious argument that developed and developing countries have equivalent responsibilities, as well as overcoming special interests advocating minimalist or counterproductive actions such as corn-based ethanol and liquid-fuel-from-coal programs.
How fast can we make interpreted Python?  [PDF]
Russell Power,Alex Rubinsteyn
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Python is a popular dynamic language with a large part of its appeal coming from powerful libraries and extension modules. These augment the language and make it a productive environment for a wide variety of tasks, ranging from web development (Django) to numerical analysis (NumPy). Unfortunately, Python's performance is quite poor when compared to modern implementations of languages such as Lua and JavaScript. Why does Python lag so far behind these other languages? As we show, the very same API and extension libraries that make Python a powerful language also make it very difficult to efficiently execute. Given that we want to retain access to the great extension libraries that already exist for Python, how fast can we make it? To evaluate this, we designed and implemented Falcon, a high-performance bytecode interpreter fully compatible with the standard CPython interpreter. Falcon applies a number of well known optimizations and introduces several new techniques to speed up execution of Python bytecode. In our evaluation, we found Falcon an average of 25% faster than the standard Python interpreter on most benchmarks and in some cases about 2.5X faster.
How accurately can we measure weak gravitational shear?  [PDF]
Thomas Erben,Ludovick Van Waerbeke,Emmanuel Bertin,Yannick Mellier,Peter Schneider
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010013
Abstract: With the recent detection of cosmic shear, the most challenging effect of weak gravitational lensing has been observed. The main difficulties for this detection were the need for a large amount of high quality data and the control of systematics during the gravitational shear measurement process, in particular those coming from the Point Spread Function anisotropy. In this paper we perform detailed simulations with the state-of-the-art algorithm developed by Kaiser, Squires and Broadhurst (KSB) to measure gravitational shear. We show that for realistic PSF profiles the KSB algorithm can recover any shear amplitude in the range $0.012 < |\gammavec |<0.32$ with a relative, systematic error of $10-15%$. We give quantitative limits on the PSF correction method as a function of shear strength, object size, signal-to-noise and PSF anisotropy amplitude, and we provide an automatic procedure to get a reliable object catalog for shear measurements out of the raw images.
How can we distinguish transient pulsars from SETI beacons?  [PDF]
James Benford
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: How would observers differentiate Beacons from pulsars or other exotic sources, in light of likely Beacon observables? Bandwidth, pulse width and frequency may be distinguishing features. Such transients could be evidence of civilizations slightly higher than ourselves on the Kardashev scale.
How Can We Study the Local Universe with CMB Photons?  [PDF]
Asantha Cooray
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We show how observations of temperature fluctuations in cosmic microwave background (CMB) can be used to extract information related to the large scale structure, including dark matter distribution, pressure and halo velocities involving the line of sight, transverse and rotational components. The frequency spectrum can be used to separate the SZ effect from thermal fluctuations. The measurement of higher order correlations in CMB can be used to extract effects involving lensing and kinetic SZ effects. A high signal-to-noise arcminute scale CMB experiment can be used to construct the weak lensing convergence, which is useful given that the background source, CMB anisotropies at the last scattering surface, is well understood.
Sudden cardiac arrest – How can we improve results of resuscitation?
Hein J. Wellens
Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology , 2012,
Abstract: Death from heart disease has continued to diminish during the last two decades, but still half of those deaths are sudden, often occurring unexpectedly outside hospital, claiming at least 250.000 lives in Europe each year. What can we do to prevent this from happening and how can we successfully resuscitate the victim?When an arrhythmic sudden death occurs outside the hospital, the only chance for survival is recognition of the situation by a witness, the start of cardiac massage and a call to bring a defibrillator and experienced people to the scene as soon as possible. Increasing the number of people trained in resuscitation, and the density of the automatic external defibrillator in the community are important factors to increase the success rate of the resuscitation attempt. However, a real breakthrough requires the development of a device that recognizes cardiac arrest, sounds an alarm, and transmits the location of the victim, thereby shortening the time interval of the different steps in the chain of survival.
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