Abstract:
It is well-known that a nilpotent n by n matrix B is determined up to conjugacy by a partition of n formed by the sizes of the Jordan blocks of B. We call this partition the Jordan type of B. We obtain partial results on the following problem: for any partition P of n describe the type Q(P) of a generic nilpotent matrix commuting with a given nilpotent matrix of type P. A conjectural description for Q(P) was given by P. Oblak and restated by L. Khatami. In this paper we prove "half" of this conjecture by showing that this conjectural type is less than or equal to Q(P) in the dominance order on partitions.

Abstract:
The Jordan type of a nilpotent matrix is the partition giving the sizes of its Jordan blocks. We study pairs of partitions $(P,Q)$, where $Q={\mathcal Q}(P)$ is the Jordan type of a generic nilpotent matrix A commuting with a nilpotent matrix B of Jordan type $ P$. T. Ko\v{s}ir and P. Oblak have shown that $Q$ has parts that differ pairwise by at least two. Such partitions, which are also known as "super distinct" or "Rogers-Ramanujan", are exactly those that are stable or "self-large" in the sense that ${\mathcal Q}(Q)=Q$. In 2012 P. Oblak formulated a conjecture concerning the cardinality of the set of partitions $P$ such that ${\mathcal Q}(P)$ is a given stable partition $ Q$ with two parts, and proved some special cases. R. Zhao refined this to posit that those partitions $P$ such that ${\mathcal Q}(P)= Q=(u,u-r)$ with $u>r\ge 2$ could be arranged in an $(r-1)$ by $(u-r)$ table ${\mathcal T}(Q)$ where the entry in the $k$-th row and $\ell$-th column has $k+\ell$ parts. We prove this Table Theorem, and then generalize the statement to propose a Box Conjecture for the set of partitions $P$ for which ${\mathcal Q}(P)=Q$, for an arbitrary stable partition $Q$.

Abstract:
Consider the space $M_n^{nor}$ of square normal matrices $X=(x_{ij})$ over $\mathbb{R}\cup\{-\infty\}$, i.e., $-\infty\le x_{ij}\le0$ and $x_{ii}=0$. Endow $M_n^{nor}$ with the tropical sum $\oplus$ and multiplication $\odot$. Fix a real matrix $A\in M_n^{nor}$ and consider the set $\Omega(A)$ of matrices in $M_n^{nor}$ which commute with $A$. We prove that $\Omega(A)$ is a finite union of alcoved polytopes; in particular, $\Omega(A)$ is a finite union of convex sets. The set $\Omega^A(A)$ of $X$ such that $A\odot X=X\odot A=A$ is also a finite union of alcoved polytopes. The same is true for the set $\Omega'(A)$ of $X$ such that $A\odot X=X\odot A=X$. A topology is given to $M_n^{nor}$. Then, the set $\Omega^{A}(A)$ is a neighborhood of the identity matrix $I$. If $A$ is strictly normal, then $\Omega'(A)$ is a neighborhood of the zero matrix. In one case, $\Omega(A)$ is a neighborhood of $A$. We give an upper bound for the dimension of $\Omega'(A)$. We explore the relationship between the polyhedral complexes $span A$, $span X$ and $span (AX)$, when $A$ and $X$ commute. Two matrices, denoted $\underline{A}$ and $\bar{A}$, arise from $A$, in connection with $\Omega(A)$. The geometric meaning of them is given in detail, for one example. We produce examples of matrices which commute, in any dimension.

Abstract:
Let $B$ be a nilpotent matrix and suppose that its Jordan canonical form is determined by a partition $\lambda$. Then it is known that its nilpotent commutator $N_B$ is an irreducible variety and that there is a unique partition $\mu$ such that the intersection of the orbit of nilpotent matrices corresponding to $\mu$ with $N_B$ is dense in $N_B$. We prove that map $D$ given by $D(\lambda)=\mu$ is an idempotent map. This answers a question of Basili and Iarrobino and gives a partial answer to a question of Panyushev. In the proof, we use the fact that for a generic matrix $A \in N_B$ the algebra generated by $A$ and $B$ is a Gorenstein algebra. Thus, a generic pair of commuting nilpotent matrices generates a Gorenstein algebra. We also describe $D(\lambda)$ in terms of $\lambda$ if $D(\lambda)$ has at most two parts.

Abstract:
Let $\N_n$ be the set of nilpotent $n$ by $n$ matrices over an algebraically closed field $k$. For each $r\ge 2$, let $C_r(\N_n)$ be the variety consisting of all pairwise commuting $r$-tuples of nilpotent matrices. It is well-kown that $C_2(\N_n)$ is irreducible for every $n$. We study in this note the reducibility of $C_r(\N_n)$ for various values of $n$ and $r$. In particular it will be shown that the reducibility of $C_r(\mathfrak{gl}_n)$, the variety of commuting $r$-tuples of $n$ by $n$ matrices, implies that of $C_r(\N_n)$ under certain condition. Then we prove that $C_r(\N_n)$ is reducible for all $n, r\ge 4$. The ingredients of this result are also useful for getting a new lower bound of the dimensions of $C_r(\N_n)$ and $C_r(\mathfrak{gl}_n)$. Finally, we investigate values of $n$ for which the variety $C_3(\N_n)$ of nilpotent commuting triples is reducible.

Abstract:
It is known that strongly nilpotent matrices over a division ring are linearly triangularizable. We describe the structure of such matrices in terms of the strong nilpotency index. We apply our results on quasi-translation x + H such that JH has strong nilpotency index two.

Abstract:
Let $H$ be a linear algebraic group over an algebraically closed field of characteristic $p>0$. We prove that any "exponential map" for $H$ induces a bijection between the variety of $r$-tuples of commuting $[p]$-nilpotent elements in $Lie(H)$ and the variety of height $r$ infinitesimal one-parameter subgroups of $H$. In particular, we show that for a connected reductive group $G$ in pretty good characteristic, there is a canonical exponential map for $G$ and hence a canonical bijection between the aforementioned varieties, answering in this case questions raised both implicitly and explicitly by Suslin, Friedlander, and Bendel.

Abstract:
Let $N(d,n)$ be the variety of all $d$-tuples of commuting nilpotent $n\times n$ matrices. It is well-known that $N(d,n)$ is irreducible if $d=2$, if $n\le 3$ or if $d=3$ and $n=4$. On the other hand $N(3,n)$ is known to be reducible for $n\ge 13$. We study in this paper the reducibility of $N(d,n)$ for various values of $d$ and $n$. In particular, we prove that $N(d,n)$ is reducible for all $d,n\ge 4$. In the case $d=3$, we show that it is irreducible for $n\le 6$.

Abstract:
Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be the $p$-dimensional Witt algebra over an algebraically closed field $k$ of characteristic $p>3$. Let $\mathscr{N}={x\in\ggg\mid x^{[p]}=0}$ be the nilpotent variety of $\mathfrak{g}$, and $\mathscr{C}(\mathscr{N}):=\{(x,y)\in \mathscr{N}\times\mathscr{N}\mid [x,y]=0\}$ the nilpotent commuting variety of $\mathfrak{g}$. As an analogue of Premet's result in the case of classical Lie algebras [A. Premet, Nilpotent commuting varieties of reductive Lie algebras. Invent. Math., 154, 653-683, 2003.], we show that the variety $\mathscr{C}(\mathscr{N})$ is reducible and equidimensional. Irreducible components of $\mathscr{C}(\mathscr{N})$ and their dimension are precisely given. Furthermore, the nilpotent commuting varieties of Borel subalgebras are also determined.

Abstract:
Let $k$ be an infinite field. Fix a Jordan nilpotent $n$ by $n$ matrix $B = J_P$ with entries in $k$ and associated Jordan type $P$. Let $Q(P)$ be the Jordan type of a generic nilpotent matrix commuting with $B$. In this paper, we use the combinatorics of a poset associated to the partition $P$, to give an explicit formula for the smallest part of $Q(P)$, which is independent of the characteristic of $k$. This, in particular, leads to a complete description of $Q(P)$ when it has at most three parts.