Abstract:
We show that in a large class of equations, solitons formed from generic initial conditions do not have infinitely long exponential tails, but are truncated by a region of Gaussian decay. This phenomenon makes it possible to treat solitons as localized, individual objects. For the case of the KdV equation, we show how the Gaussian decay emerges in the inverse scattering formalism.

Abstract:
In this article two methods to distinguish between polynomial and exponential tails are introduced. The methods are mainly based on the properties of the residual coefficient of variation for the exponential and non-exponential distributions. A graphical method, called CV-plot, shows departures from exponentiality in the tails. It is, in fact, the empirical coefficient of variation of the conditional excedance over a threshold. The plot is applied to the daily log-returns of exchange rates of US dollar and Japan yen. New statistics are introduced for testing the exponentiality of tails using multiple thresholds. Some simulation studies present the critical points and compare them with the corresponding asymptotic critical points. Moreover, the powers of new statistics have been compared with the powers of some others statistics for different sample size.

Abstract:
We show that oriented percolation occurs whenever a condition is satisfied called "exponential intersection tails". This condition says that a measure on paths exists for which the probability of two independent paths intersecting in more than k sites is exponentially small in k.

Abstract:
We propose a universal channel coding when each output distribution forms an exponential family even in a continuous output system. We propose two types of universal codes; One has the exponentially decreasing error with explicit a lower bound for the error exponent. The other attains the $\epsilon$-capacity up to the second order. Our encoder is the same as the previous paper [CMP {\bf 289}, 1087]. For our decoding process, we invent $\alpha$-R\'{e}nyi divergence version of Clarke and Barron's formula for Bayesian average distribution, which are not required in the previous paper. Combing this formula and the information spectrum method, we propose our universal decoder. Our method enables us to treat a universal code of the continuous and discrete cases in a unified way with the second order coding rate as well as with the exponential decreasing rate.

Abstract:
Exponential bounds and tail estimates are derived for additive random recursive sequences, which typically arise as functionals of recursive structures, of random trees or in recursive algorithms. In particular they arise as parameters of divide and conquer type algorithms. We derive tail bounds from estimates of the Laplace transforms and of the moment sequences. For the proof we use some classical exponential bounds and some variants of the induction method. The paper generalizes results of R"osler (% citeyearNP{Roesler:91}, % citeyearNP{Roesler:92}) and % citeN{Neininger:05} on subgaussian tails to more general classes of additive random recursive sequences. It also gives sufficient conditions for tail bounds of the form $exp(-a t^p)$ which are based on a characterization of citeN{Kasahara:78}.

Abstract:
The universal power law tails of single particle and multi-particle time correlation functions are derived from a unifying point of view, solely using the hydrodynamic modes of the system. The theory applies to general correlation functions, and to systems more general than classical fluids. Moreover it is argued that the collisional transfer part of the stress-stress correlation function in dense classical fluids has the same long time tail $\sim t^{-1-d/2}$ as the velocity autocorrelation function in Lorentz gases.

Abstract:
Let $p$ and $q$ be probability vectors with the same entropy $h$. Denote by $B(p)$ the Bernoulli shift indexed by $\Z$ with marginal distribution $p$. Suppose that $\phi$ is a measure preserving homomorphism from $B(p)$ to $B(q)$. We prove that if the coding length of $\phi$ has a finite 1/2 moment, then $\sigma_p^2=\sigma_q^2$, where $\sigma_p^2=\sum_i p_i(-\log p_i-h)^2$ is the {\dof informational variance} of $p$. In this result, which sharpens a theorem of Parry (1979), the 1/2 moment cannot be replaced by a lower moment. On the other hand, for any $\theta<1$, we exhibit probability vectors $p$ and $q$ that are not permutations of each other, such that there exists a finitary isomorphism $\Phi$ from $B(p)$ to $B(q)$ where the coding lengths of $\Phi$ and of its inverse have a finite $\theta$ moment. We also present an extension to ergodic Markov chains.

Abstract:
The problem of the steady-state velocity distribution in a driven inelastic Maxwell model of shaken granular material is revisited. Numerical solution of the master equation and analytical arguments show that the model has bilateral exponential velocity tails ($P(v)\sim e^{-|v|/\sqrt D}$), where $D$ is the amplitude of the noise. Previous study of this model predicted Gaussian tails ($P(v)\sim e^{-av^2}$).

Abstract:
Probability density functions (pdfs) of $^{13}CO$ emission line centroid (line-of-sight, intensity-weighted average) velocities are presented for several densely sampled molecular clouds as quantitative descriptors of their underlying dynamics. Although some are approximately Gaussian in form, most of the pdfs exhibit relatively broader, often nearly exponential, tails, similar to the pdfs of velocity {\em differences} and {\em derivatives} (but not the velocity field itself) found in experiments and numerical simulations of incompressible turbulence. The broad pdf tails found in the present work are also similar to those found in decades-old measurements of interstellar velocity pdfs using atomic line centroids, and to the excess wing emission recently found in individual molecular line profiles. Some possible interpretations of the observed deviations are briefly discussed, although none of these account for the nearly exponential tails.