Abstract:
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have potential applications in quantum information processing due to the fact that they are potential on-demand sources of single and entangled photons. Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs was demonstrated using the biexciton-exciton radiative cascade. One obvious way to increase the number of quantum correlated photons that the QDs emit is to use higher-order multiexcitons, in particular the triexciton. Towards achieving this goal, we first demonstrate deterministic generation of the QD-confined triexciton in a well-definedcoherent state and then spectrally identify and directly measure a three-photon radiative cascade resulting from the sequential triexciton-biexciton-exciton radiative recombination.

Abstract:
We theoretically study the effects of bias-controlled interdot tunneling in vertically coupled quantum dots on the emission properties of spin excitons in various bias-controlled tunneling regimes. As a main result, for strongly coupled dots we predict substantial reduction of optical fine structure splitting without any drop in the optical oscillator strength. This special reduction diminishes the distinguibility of polarized decay paths in cascade emission processes suggesting the use of stacked quantum dot molecules as entangled photon-pair sources.

Abstract:
The spectra of soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), with the exception of the March 5, 1979 main burst, are characterized by high-energy cutoffs around 30 keV and low-energy turnovers that are much steeper than a Wien spectrum. Baring (1995) found that the spectra of cascades due to photon splitting in a very strong, homogeneous magnetic field can soften spectra and produce good fits to the soft spectra of SGRs. Magnetic field strengths somewhat above the QED critical field strength $B_{\rm cr}$, where $B_{\rm cr} = 4.413 \times 10^{13}$ G, is required to produce cutoffs at 30-40 keV. We have improved upon this model by computing Monte Carlo photon splitting cascade spectra in a neutron star dipole magnetic field, including effects of curved space-time in a Schwarzschild metric. We investigate spectra produced by photons emitted at different locations and observer angles. We find that the general results of Baring hold for surface emission throughout most of the magnetosphere, but that emission in equatorial regions can best reproduce the constancy of SGR spectra observed from different bursts.

Abstract:
Excitonic fine structure splitting in quantum dots is closely related to the lateral shape of the wave functions. We have studied theoretically the fine structure splitting in InAs quantum dots with a type-II confinement imposed by a GaAsSb capping layer. We show that very small values of the fine structure splitting comparable with the natural linewidth of the excitonic transitions are achievable for realistic quantum dot morphologies despite the structural elongation and the piezoelectric field. For example, varying the capping layer thickness allows for a fine tuning of the splitting energy. The effect is explained by a strong sensitivity of the hole wave function to the morphology of the structure and a mutual compensation of the electron and hole anisotropies. The oscillator strength of the excitonic transitions in the studied quantum dots is comparable to those with a type-I confinement which makes the dots attractive for quantum communication technology as emitters of polarization-entangled photon pairs.

Abstract:
The Hamiltonian of the four-body problem for a lithium atom is expanded in series. The level shift and level formula of a lithium atom in Rydberg states are achieved by means of the calculation of polarization of the atomic core (including the contribution of dipole, quadrupole and octupole components). We also consider the effect of relativity theory, the orbital angular momentum L and the spin angular momentum S coupling scheme (LS coupling) and high-order correction of the effective potential to the level shift. The fine structure splitting (N=5-12, L=4-9, J=L±1/2) and level intervals in Rydberg states have been calculated by the above-mentioned formula and compared with recent experimental data.

Abstract:
Degeneracy of the bright single exciton spin state is a prerequisite for the production of triggered polarization-entangled photon pairs from the biexciton decay of a quantum dot. Normally, however, the exciton spin states are split due to in-plane asymmetries. Here we demonstrate that the exciton splitting of an individual dot can be tuned through zero by thermal annealing. Repeated annealing blueshifts the exciton emission line of the dot, accompanied by a reduction and inversion in polarization splitting. Annealing is also demonstrated to control the detuning between the exciton and biexciton transitions in any selected dot.

Abstract:
Exciton levels and fine-structure splitting in laterally-coupled quantum dot molecules are studied. The electron and hole tunneling energies as well as the direct Coulomb interaction are essential for the exciton levels. It is found that fine-structure splitting of the two-lowest exciton levels is contributed from the intra- and inter-dot exchange interactions, both of which are largely influenced by the symmetry and tunnel-coupling between the two dots. As the inter-dot separation is reduced, fine-structure splitting of the exciton ground state is largely increased while those of the excited states are decreased. Moreover, the dependence of the fine-structure splitting in quantum dot molecules on the Coulomb correlation is clearly clarified.

Abstract:
Electron structure of a silicon quantum dot doped with a shallow hydrogen-like donor has been calculated for the electron states above the optical gap. Within the framework of the envelope-function approach we have calculated the fine splitting of the ground sixfold degenerate electron state as a function of the donor position inside the quantum dot. Also, dependence of the wave functions and energies on the dot size was obtained.

Abstract:
A systematic variation of the exciton fine-structure splitting with quantum dot size in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is observed. The splitting increases from -80 to as much as 520 $\mu$eV with quantum dot size. A change of sign is reported for small quantum dots. Model calculations within the framework of eight-band k.p theory and the configuration interaction method were performed. Different sources for the fine-structure splitting are discussed, and piezoelectricity is pinpointed as the only effect reproducing the observed trend.

Abstract:
We develop a theoretical model to study the Intensity-Intensity correlation of polarization entangled photons emitted in a biexciton-exciton cascade. We calculate the degree of correlation and show how polarization correlation are affected by the presence of dephasing and energy level splitting of the excitonic states. Our theoretical calculations are in agreement with the recent observation of polarization dependent Intensity-Intensity correlations from a single semiconductor quantum dot [R. M. Stevenson et. al., Nature 439, 179 (2006)] . Our model can be extended to study polarization entangled photon emission in coupled quantum dot systems.