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Acute-Toxicity of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) on Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings
T. Jegede
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012,
Abstract: A static bioassay was conducted to determine the 96h LC50 of NaCl to Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (11.58 + 0.13 g) and to describe the histological changes in the gill, heart and kidney. LC50 of O. niloticus fingerlings was determined graphically as 11.33ppt. The fish showed increase hyperactivity exemplified by erratic movement, loss of reflex and hyperventilation during 96 h exposure. Histological examination revealed that gill architecture was destroyed and gill lamellae were fused. The heart showed deformities including perforation and enlargement. The kidney was greatly deformed and discoloured.
Response of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F) to Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Application
Orhue Ehi Robert,Osaigbovo Agbonsalo Ulamen
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.288.293
Abstract: The influence of NaCl on the early growth of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F) and some soil chemical properties was studied in a green house and field experiment at the University of Benin, Teaching and Research Farm. The levels of NaCl used in the greenhouse were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 g/10 kg soil organized in completely randomize design while in the field trial, the 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 kg ha-1 equivalent to those of green house trial were tested in a randomized complete block design. Result revealed that the N, P, K, Mg and Ca content and their uptake by the plant and the ionic balance (K:Na, Ca:Na, Mg:Ca) decreased significantly with increasing NaCl applications. The Na and Cl content and their uptake by the plant increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing Nacl concentrations. The result further showed that the N, P and pH components of the soil were not consistent with increasing NaCl treatments while the K, Na, Ca, Cl, Sodium Absorption Radio (SAR), exchangeable acidity, organic carbon and effective cation exchange capacity increased significantly with increasing NaCl levels. As the NaCl concentrations increased, the plant height, stem girth, number of leaves and shoot dry matter yield significantly (p<0.05) decreased.
Integral equation theory for the electrode-electrolyte interface with the central force water model. Results for an aqueous solution of sodium chloride  [PDF]
M. Vossen,F. Forstmann
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1080/00268979500102881
Abstract: The structure of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride at a planar electrode is investigated by integral equation techniques. With the central force water model the aqueous electrolyte is modelled as a mixture of sodium and chloride ions and partially charged hydrogen and oxygen atoms interacting via effective spherically symmetric pair potentials. The bulk correlation functions are obtained from the Ornstein-Zernike equation. With the Wertheim-Lovett-Mou-Buff equation we have calculated the density profiles at the uncharged and charged electrode. Steric interactions between the differently sized ions and the ice-like water structure near the electrode dominates the ionic distribution. This model electrolyte also responds differently to opposite charges on the electrode.
Effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) and nucleic acid containing by-products supplementation on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of southern native male cattle
Seangkong, W.,Ngampongsai, W.,Kuprasert, S.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: Effects of sodium chloride and nucleic acid containing by-products supplementation on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of southern native male cattle was studied. Five native male cattle, 2.5years old with average body weight (BW) of 286±29 kg were arranged in a 5x5 latin square design. The cattle were fed Plicatulum hay ad libitum, supplemented with concentrate (14.16% crude protein) at 1% ofBW (air dry basis). Five concentrate treatments were used i.e., basal concentrate with NaCl (control), concentrate without NaCl (free salt) and three tested concentrate which were prepared by replacing NaCl inbasal concentrate with Dx-ML, NS1 and NS2. The NaCl level in control, Dx-ML, NS1 and NS2 concentrate was 2%. The amount of dry matter intake, organic matter intake, crude protein intake from hay were not different among treatments. The amount of concentrate intake in Dx-ML, NS1 and NS2 groups weresignificantly higher than those of free salt and control groups (36.30, 35.90 and 36.52 vs 34.60 and 34.40 gDM/kgBW0.75/d, P<0.05). Thus caused a higher trend of total feed (hay+concentrate) intake in Dx-ML, NS1and NS2 groups (94.40, 94.92 and 91.62 gDM/kgBW0.75/d, respectively) than those of free salt and control groups (86.98 and 89.00 gDM/kgBW0.75/d, respectively). The amount of organic matter intake from concentrateof NS2 was significantly higher than those in the free salt and control groups (33.60 vs 32.64 and 32.51 g/ kgBW0.75/d). No significant differences in total organic matter intake, crude protein intake, nitrogen balance,nutrient digestibility coefficient and total digestible nutrient were found among treatments. Therefore, DXML, NS1 and NS2 might have superiority to NaCl in improving concentrate intake in southern native cattle.
Systematic comparison of force fields for microscopic simulations of NaCl in aqueous solutions: Diffusion, free energy of hydration and structural properties  [PDF]
Michael Patra,Mikko Karttunen
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1002/jcc.10417
Abstract: In this paper we compare different force fields that are widely used (Gromacs, Charmm-22/x-Plor, Charmm-27, Amber-1999, OPLS-AA) in biophysical simulations containing aqueous NaCl. We show that the uncertainties of the microscopic parameters of, in particular, sodium and, to a lesser extent, chloride translate into large differences in the computed radial-distribution functions. This uncertainty reflects the incomplete experimental knowledge of the structural properties of ionic aqueous solutions at finite molarity.We discuss possible implications on the computation of potential of mean force and effective potentials.
Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl) on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther)  [PDF]
Weena Koeypudsa,Malinee Jongjareanjai
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day) and long-term (30 days) exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5 C) and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5 C).Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs), high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s), low temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (LtWs), and low temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride (LtW/s).Blood was taken from caudal vessel of anaesthetized fish to investigate blood clotting time, cortisol, glucose, osmolarity,Na+, K+ and Cl-. Ratios of Na+/K+, Na+/Cl- and Na+ + K+ / Cl- were also analyzed. In the short-term (1 day) experiment, values ofall catfish blood parameters varied. These imply that catfish attempt to maintain internal balance, homeostasis. Osmolarityexhibited complete homeostasis in 2 h. From long-term (30 days) exposure, non-significant means of Na+/Cl- ratio (HtWs)and decreasing trend lines direction of blood clotting time (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs) indicated that 0.1% sodium chloride and/orLt helped stress reduction in catfish. Sum of Na+ and K+ to Cl- ratio among 4 groups (HtW/s, HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs) revealedthat catfish spent 10 days for adjustment themselves under stress circumstance (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs) to natural situation(HtW/s). This information could be useful to improve the survival rate and health condition during rearing, handling andtransporting aquatic animals.

ZHANG Zhen,LIANG Yu-wu College of Chemistry,South China University of Technology,Guangzhou,

腐蚀科学与防护技术 , 2008,
Abstract: Linear sweep voltammetry and Tafel technology were employed to measure the polarization of iron electrode in sodium chloride solutions with different pH value and with different concentration of sodium chloride,so that to study the corrosion regulation of iron.The results indicate that hydrogen ion and chloride ion can accelerate the corrosion of iron as increasing their concentrations.The corrosion mechanisms of iron in deferent solutions are suggested.The addition of chloride ion into the sodium chloride solution can change the structure of the passive film and increase the dissolution rate of the film.
Saturated Sodium Chloride Solution under an External Static Electric Field: a Molecular Dynamics Study  [PDF]
Gan Ren,Yanting Wang
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The behavior of saturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions under a constant external electric field (E) was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our dynamic MD simulations have indicated that the irreversible nucleation process towards crystallization is accelerated by a moderate E, but retarded or even prohibited under a stronger E, which can be understood by the competition between self-diffusion and drift motion. The former increases with E resulting in the acceleration of the nucleation process, and the latter tears oppositely charged ions more apart under a stronger E leading to the deceleration of nucleation. Moreover, our steady-state MD simulations have indicated that a first-order phase transition happens in saturated solutions only when the applied E is below a certain threshold Ec, and the ratio of crystallized ions does not change with the electric field. The magnitude of Ec increases with concentration, because larger clusters are easy to form in a more concentrated solution and require a stronger E to dissociate them.
Structural Transitions and Global Minima of Sodium Chloride Clusters  [PDF]
Jonathan Doye,David Wales
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.59.2292
Abstract: In recent experiments on sodium chloride clusters structural transitions between nanocrystals with different cuboidal shapes were detected. Here we determine reaction pathways between the low energy isomers of one of these clusters, (NaCl)35Cl-. The key process in these structural transitions is a highly cooperative rearrangement in which two parts of the nanocrystal slip past one another on a {110} plane in a <1-10> direction. In this way the nanocrystals can plastically deform, in contrast to the brittle behaviour of bulk sodium chloride crystals at the same temperatures; the nanocrystals have mechanical properties which are a unique feature of their finite size. We also report and compare the global potential energy minima for (NaCl)NCl- using two empirical potentials, and comment on the effect of polarization.
Comparison of different methods for determination of sodium chloride in cheese  [PDF]
Rajkovi? Milo? B.,Sredovi? Ivana D.,Miloradovi? Zorana N.
Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/jas1001065r
Abstract: The content of NaCl (weight fraction of Cl-ions, in %) was analysed in different cheeses, which were bought in supermarkets, and made by domestic manufacturers. Sodium chloride in cheese samples was analysed after the extraction of chloride by nitric acid solution. Concentration of chloride ions was potentiometricly determined, with the chloride selective electrode and titrimetricly by Volhard method. According to the results in the analysis of the content of NaCl in %, by different methods it was determined that the share of NaCl in % ranged from 0.66 to 4.43% (determined by potentiometric route) that is from 0.97 to 4.72% (determined by titrimetric route by Volhard method). The difference in received results in different methods is less if the share of NaCl, in % is higher than 3%. If the share is less than 3%, the difference in results rapidly increases, and the biggest difference is when the share is less than 1%. This analysis was done according to the results received by Volhard method, which is accepted as a standard method. As Volhard method is in connection with cheese resolving by intense oxidation means, azotic acid and potassium permanganate, obligatory in fume board (hood), it is not a practical method. On the other hand, the potentiometric method with usage of the chloride-selective electrode is very simple and gives reliable and reproductive results. In case of a small content of NaCl, in %, higher precision and accuracy of determination by chloride-selective electrode can be obtained by indirect measurement of chloride-ions (by standard addition method).
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