Abstract:
Isospin singlet (pn) pairing as well as quartetting in nuclei is expected to arise near the symmetry line $N=Z$. Empirical values can be deduced from the nuclear binding energies applying special filters. Within the local density approximation, theoretical estimates for finite nuclei are obtained from results for the condensation energy of asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the isospin singlet condensation energy drops down abruptly for |N-Z|~4 for medium nuclei in the region A=40. Furthermore, alpha-like quartetting and the influence of excitations are discussed.

Abstract:
L=0 proton-neutron ($pn$) pair-addition and pair-removal strengths in $^{40}$Ca and $^{56}$Ni are investigated by means of the $pn$ particle-particle random-phase approximation employing a Skyrme energy-density functional. It is found that the collectivity of the lowest $J^\pi = 1^+$ state in the adjacent odd-odd nuclei becomes stronger as the strength of the isoscalar (T=0) pairing interaction increases. The results suggest the emergence of the T=0 $pn$-pairing vibrational mode as a possible critical phenomenon toward the T=0 pairing condensation.

Abstract:
The theory of quartet condensation is further developed. The onset of quartetting in homgeneous fermionic matter is studied with the help of an in-medium modified four fermion equation. It is found that at very low density quartetting wins over pairing. At zero temperature, in analogy to pairing, a set of equations for the quartet order parameter is given. Contrary to pairing, quartetting only exists for strong coupling and breaks down for weak coupling. Reasons for this finding are detailed. In an application to nuclear matter, the critical temperature for alpha particle condensation can reach values up to around 8 MeV. The disappearance of alpha particles with increasing density, i.e. the Mott transition, is investigated. In finite nuclei the Hoyle state, that is the second 0+ state of 12C is identified as an 'alpha-particle condensate' state. It is conjectured that such states also exist in heavier n-alpha nuclei, like 16O, 20Ne, etc. The sixth 0+ state in 16O is proposed as an analogue to the Hoyle state. The Gross-Pitaevski equation is employed to make an estimate of the maximum number of alpha particles a condensate state can contain. Possible quartet condensation in other systems is discussed briefly.

Abstract:
The onset of quartetting, i.e. alpha-particle condensation, in symmetric nuclear matter is studied with the help of an in-medium modified four nucleon equation. It is found that at very low density quartetting wins over pairing, because of the strong binding of the alpha-particles. The critical temperature can reach values up to around 6 MeV. Also the disappearance of alpha-particles with increasing density, i.e. the Mott transition, is investigated. In finite nuclei the Hoyle state, that is the 0_2^+ of 12C, is identified as an "alpha-particle condensate" state. It is conjectured that such states also exist in heavier n alpha-nuclei, like 16O, 20Ne, etc. For instance the 6-th 0^+ state of 16O at 15.1 MeV is identified from a theoretical analysis as being a strong candidate for an alpha condensate state. Exploratory calculations are performed for the density dependence of the alpha condensate fraction at zero temperature to address the suppression of the four-particle condensate below nuclear-matter density. Possible quartet condensation in other systems is discussed briefly

Abstract:
Pair vibrations are studied for a Hamiltonian with neutron-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-proton pairing. The spectrum is found to be rich in strongly correlated, low-lying excited states. Changing theratio of diagonal to off-diagonal pairing matrix elements is found to have a large impact on the excited-state spectrum. The variational configuration interaction (VCI) method, used to calculate the excitation spectrum, is found to be in very good agreement with exact solutions for systems with large degeneracies having equal T=0 and T=1 pairing strengths.

Abstract:
We analyze the superconducting state and the c-axis charge dynamics of cuprates using a charged ordered bilayer superlattice model in which pairing is supported by inter-layer Coulomb energy gain. The superlattice nature of high temperature superconductivity is experimentally suggested by the smallness of the coherent length \xi = 10 to 30 A which is comparable with a width of a 4X4 to 8X8 square supercell lattice layer. The temperature induced 2D-3D quantum phase transition of the hole-content is also studied. Pair condensation leads to the sharp decrease of the normal state c-axis anisotropy of the hole-content and reduces inter-layer dielectric screening. The decrease of the c-axis dielectric screening can be the primary source of the condensation energy. The 2D pair condensate can be characterized by a charge ordered state with a "checkboard" pattern seen by scanning tunneling microscopy.

Abstract:
We propose a simple quartet condensation model (QCM) which describes with very high accuracy the isovector pairing correlations in self-conjugate nuclei. The quartets have an alpha-like structure and are formed by collective isovector pairs. The accuracy of the QCM is tested for N=Z nuclei for which exact shell model diagonalizations can be performed. The calculations are done with two isovector pairing forces, one extracted from standard shell model interactions and the other of seniority type, acting, respectively, upon spherical and axially-deformed single-particle states. It is shown that for all calculated nuclei the QCM gives very accurate values for the pairing correlations energies, with errors which do not exceed 1%. These results show clearly that the correlations induced by the isovector pairing in self-conjugate nuclei are of quartet type and also indicate that QCM is the proper tool to calculate the isovector proton-neutron correlations in mean field pairing models.

Abstract:
Neutron-proton (np-) pairing is expected to play an important role in the N Z nuclei. In general, it can have isovector and isoscalar character. The existence of isovector np-pairing is well established. On the contrary, it is still debated whether there is an isoscalar np-pairing. The review of the situation with these two types of pairing with special emphasis on the isoscalar one is presented. It is concluded that there are no substantial evidences for the existence of isoscalar np-pairing.

Abstract:
The role of neutron-proton pairing correlations on the structure of nuclei along the $N=Z$ line is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the competition between isovector ($T=1$) and isoscalar $(T=0$) pair fields. The expected properties of these systems, in terms of pairing collective motion, are assessed by different theoretical frameworks including schematic models, realistic Shell Model and mean field approaches. The results are contrasted with experimental data with the goal of establishing clear signals for the existence of neutron-proton ($np$) condensates. We will show that there is clear evidence for an isovector $np$ condensate as expected from isospin invariance. However, and contrary to early expectations, a condensate of deuteron-like pairs appears quite elusive and pairing collectivity in the $T=0$ channel may only show in the form of a phonon. Arguments are presented for the use of direct reactions, adding or removing an $np$ pair, as the most promising tool to provide a definite answer to this intriguing question.

Abstract:
We reexamine neutron-proton pairing as a phenomenon that should be explanable in a microscopic theory of nuclear binding energies. Empirically, there is an increased separation energy when both neutron and proton numbers are even or if they are both odd. The enhancement is present at some level in nearly all nuclei: the separation energy difference has the opposite sign in less than 1% of the cases in which sufficient data exist. We discuss the possible origin of the effect in the context of density functional theory (DFT) and its extensions. Neutron-proton pairing from the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory does not seem promising to explain the effect. We demonstrate that much of the increased binding in the odd-odd system might be understood as a recoupling energy. This suggests that the DFT should be extended by angular momentum projection to describe the effect.