Abstract:
We present analytical solutions for the mean-field master equation of the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model for cavity photons, in the limit of both weak pumping and weak dissipation. Instead of pure Mott insulator states, we find statistical mixtures with the same second-order coherence as a Fock state with n photons, but a mean photon number of n/2. These mixed states occur when n pump photons have the same energy as n interacting photons inside the nonlinear cavity and survive up to a critical tunneling coupling strength, above which a crossover to classical coherent state takes place. We also explain the origin of both antibunching and superbunching predicted by P-representation mean-field theory at higher pumping and dissipation. In particular, we show that the strongly correlated region of the associated phase diagram cannot be described within the semiclassical Gross-Pitaevski approach.

Abstract:
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism, in which a phase transition is mediated by the proliferation of topological defects, governs the critical behaviour of a wide range of equilibrium two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry, ranging from superconducting thin films to two-dimensional Bose fluids, such as liquid helium and ultracold atoms. We show here that this phenomenon is not restricted to thermal equilibrium, rather it survives more generally in a dissipative highly non-equilibrium system driven into a steady-state. By considering a light-matter superfluid of polaritons, in the so-called optical parametric oscillator regime, we demonstrate that it indeed undergoes a vortex binding-unbinding phase transition. Yet, the exponent of the power-law decay of the first order correlation function in the (algebraically) ordered phase can exceed the equilibrium upper limit -- a surprising occurrence, which has also been observed in a recent experiment. Thus we demonstrate that the ordered phase is somehow more robust against the quantum fluctuations of driven systems than thermal ones in equilibrium.

Abstract:
Observations of macroscopic quantum coherence in driven systems, e.g. polariton condensates, have strongly stimulated experimental as well as theoretical efforts during the last decade. We address the question of whether a driven quantum condensate is a superfluid, allowing for the effects of disorder and its non-equilibrium nature. We predict that for spatial dimensions d<4 the superfluid stiffness vanishes once the condensate exceeds a critical size, and treat in detail the case d=2. Thus a non-equilibrium condensate is not a superfluid in the thermodynamic limit, even for weak disorder, although superfluid behavior would persist in small systems.

Abstract:
We determine the steady-state phases of a driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model, describing, e.g., an array of coherently pumped nonlinear cavities with a finite photon lifetime. Within a mean-field master equation approach using exact quantum solutions for the one-site problem, we show that the system exhibits a tunneling-induced transition between monostable and bistable phases. We characterize the corresponding quantum correlations, highlighting the essential differences with respect to the equilibrium case. We also find collective excitations with a flat energy-momentum dispersion over the entire Brillouin zone that trigger modulational instabilities at specific wavevectors.

Abstract:
The size effect in the gas of impuritons of the superfluid mixtures of helium isotopes is investigated by taking into consideration the contribution of thermal excitations. The solution is obtained for the set of kinetic equations describing a non-equilibrium state of the phonon-impuriton system of a superfluid mixture situated in the volume filled with the macroparticles. It allows to find the condition describing a steady, thermodynamically non-equilibrium state of $^3{He}-^4{He}$ mixture in confined geometry. The Knudsen effect in the gas of impuritons of a superfluid mixture is investigated by taking into account the contribution of phonons. A model for the collision operator has been proposed to analyze the exact results in the context of the concrete physical situations. An experiment for the investigation of the Knudsen effect in a superfluid mixture of helium isotopes is proposed.

Abstract:
We introduce a solvable stochastic model inspired by granular gases for driven dissipative systems. We characterize far from equilibrium steady states of such systems through the non-Boltzmann energy distribution and compare different measures of effective temperatures. As an example we demonstrate that fluctuation-dissipation relations hold, however with an effective temperature differing from the effective temperature defined from the average energy.

Abstract:
We develop a numerical procedure to efficiently model the nonequilibrium steady state of one-dimensional arrays of open quantum systems, based on a matrix-product operator ansatz for the density matrix. The procedure searches for the null eigenvalue of the Liouvillian superoperator by sweeping along the system while carrying out a partial diagonalization of the single-site stationary problem. It bears full analogy to the density-matrix renormalization group approach to the ground state of isolated systems, and its numerical complexity scales as a power law with the bond dimension. The method brings considerable advantage when compared to the integration of the time-dependent problem via Trotter decomposition, as it can address arbitrarily long-ranged couplings. Additionally, it ensures numerical stability in the case of weakly dissipative systems thanks to a slow tuning of the dissipation rates along the sweeps. We have tested the method on a driven-dissipative spin chain, under various assumptions for the Hamiltonian, drive, and dissipation parameters, and compared the results to those obtained both by Trotter dynamics and Monte-Carlo wave function. Accurate and numerically stable convergence was always achieved when applying the method to systems with a gapped Liouvillian and a non-degenerate steady-state.

Abstract:
Solid state quantum condensates can differ from other condensates, such as Helium, ultracold atomic gases, and superconductors, in that the condensing quasiparticles have relatively short lifetimes, and so, as for lasers, external pumping is required to maintain a steady state. In this chapter we present a non-equilibrium path integral approach to condensation in a dissipative environment and apply it to microcavity polaritons, driven out of equilibrium by coupling to multiple baths, describing pumping and decay. Using this, we discuss the relation between non-equilibrium polariton condensation, lasing, and equilibrium condensation.

Abstract:
We present a comprehensive analysis of critical behavior in the driven-dissipative Bose condensation transition in three spatial dimensions. Starting point is a microscopic description of the system in terms of a many-body quantum master equation, where coherent and driven-dissipative dynamics occur on an equal footing. An equivalent Keldysh real time functional integral reformulation opens up the problem to a practical evaluation using the tools of quantum field theory. In particular, we develop a functional renormalization group approach to quantitatively explore the universality class of this stationary non-equilibrium system. Key results comprise the emergence of an asymptotic thermalization of the distribution function, while manifest non-equilibrium properties are witnessed in the response properties in terms of a new, independent critical exponent. Thus the driven-dissipative microscopic nature is seen to bear observable consequences on the largest length scales. The absence of two symmetries present in closed equilibrium systems - underlying particle number conservation and detailed balance, respectively - is identified as the root of this new non-equilibrium critical behavior. Our results are relevant for broad ranges of open quantum systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, from exciton-polariton condensates to cold atomic gases.

Abstract:
We investigate the Kondo model with time-dependent couplings that are periodically switched on and off. On the Toulouse line we derive exact analytical results for the spin dynamics in the steady state that builds up after an infinite number of switching periods. Remarkably, the algebraic long time behavior of the spin-spin correlation function remains completely unaffected by the driving. In the limit of slow driving the dynamics become equivalent to that of a single interaction quench. In the limit of fast driving one can show that the steady state cannot be described by some effective equilibrium Hamiltonian since a naive implementation of the Trotter formula gives wrong results. As a consequence, the steady state in the limit of fast switching serves as an example for the emergence of new quantum states not accessible in equilibrium.