Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to introduce our idea of Holonomic Quantum Computation (Computer). Our model is based on both harmonic oscillators and non-linear quantum optics, not on spins of usual quantum computation and our method is moreover completely geometrical. We hope that therefore our model may be strong for decoherence.

Abstract:
Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is closely related to the problem of finding minimal length paths in a particular curved geometry [Nielsen et al, Science 311, 1133-1135 (2006)]. This paper investigates many of the basic geometric objects associated to this space, including the Levi-Civita connection, the geodesic equation, the curvature, and the Jacobi equation. We show that the optimal Hamiltonian evolution for synthesis of a desired unitary necessarily obeys a simple universal geodesic equation. As a consequence, once the initial value of the Hamiltonian is set, subsequent changes to the Hamiltonian are completely determined by the geodesic equation. We develop many analytic solutions to the geodesic equation, and a set of invariants that completely determine the geodesics. We investigate the problem of finding minimal geodesics through a desired unitary, U, and develop a procedure which allows us to deform the (known) geodesics of a simple and well understood metric to the geodesics of the metric of interest in quantum computation. This deformation procedure is illustrated using some three-qubit numerical examples. We study the computational complexity of evaluating distances on Riemmanian manifolds, and show that no efficient classical algorithm for this problem exists, subject to the assumption that good pseudorandom generators exist. Finally, we develop a canonical extension procedure for unitary operations which allows ancilla qubits to be incorporated into the geometric approach to quantum computing.

Abstract:
Quantum algorithms are sequences of abstract operations, performed on non-existent computers. They are in obvious need of categorical semantics. We present some steps in this direction, following earlier contributions of Abramsky, Coecke and Selinger. In particular, we analyze function abstraction in quantum computation, which turns out to characterize its classical interfaces. Some quantum algorithms provide feasible solutions of important hard problems, such as factoring and discrete log (which are the building blocks of modern cryptography). It is of a great practical interest to precisely characterize the computational resources needed to execute such quantum algorithms. There are many ideas how to build a quantum computer. Can we prove some necessary conditions? Categorical semantics help with such questions. We show how to implement an important family of quantum algorithms using just abelian groups and relations.

Abstract:
We describe in detail a general strategy for implementing a conditional geometric phase between two spins. Combined with single-spin operations, this simple operation is a universal gate for quantum computation, in that any unitary transformation can be implemented with arbitrary precision using only single-spin operations and conditional phase shifts. Thus quantum geometrical phases can form the basis of any quantum computation. Moreover, as the induced conditional phase depends only on the geometry of the paths executed by the spins it is resilient to certain types of errors and offers the potential of a naturally fault-tolerant way of performing quantum computation.

Abstract:
Geometrical aspects of quantum computing are reviewed elementarily for nonexperts and/or graduate students who are interested in both geometry and quantum computation. We show how to treat Grassmann manifolds which are very important examples of manifolds in mathematics and physics. Some of their applications to quantum computation and its efficiency problems are shown. An interesting current topic of holonomic quantum computation is also covered. Also, some related advanced topics are discussed.

Abstract:
Geometrical aspects of quantum computing are reviewed elementarily for non-experts and/or graduate students who are interested in both Geometry and Quantum Computation. In the first half we show how to treat Grassmann manifolds which are very important examples of manifolds in Mathematics and Physics. Some of their applications to Quantum Computation and its efficiency problems are shown in the second half. An interesting current topic of Holonomic Quantum Computation is also covered. In the Appendix some related advanced topics are discussed.

Abstract:
This paper proposes a method of unifying quantum mechanics and gravity based on quantum computation. In this theory, fundamental processes are described in terms of pairwise interactions between quantum degrees of freedom. The geometry of space-time is a construct, derived from the underlying quantum information processing. The computation gives rise to a superposition of four-dimensional spacetimes, each of which obeys the Einstein-Regge equations. The theory makes explicit predictions for the back-reaction of the metric to computational `matter,' black-hole evaporation, holography, and quantum cosmology.

Abstract:
Quantum computation and quantum information are of great current interest in computer science, mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. They will likely lead to a new wave of technological innovations in communication, computation and cryptography. As the theory of quantum physics is fundamentally stochastic, randomness and uncertainty are deeply rooted in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. Consequently quantum algorithms are random in nature, and quantum simulation utilizes Monte Carlo techniques extensively. Thus statistics can play an important role in quantum computation and quantum simulation, which in turn offer great potential to revolutionize computational statistics. While only pseudo-random numbers can be generated by classical computers, quantum computers are able to produce genuine random numbers; quantum computers can exponentially or quadratically speed up median evaluation, Monte Carlo integration and Markov chain simulation. This paper gives a brief review on quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. We introduce the basic concepts of quantum computation and quantum simulation and present quantum algorithms that are known to be much faster than the available classic algorithms. We provide a statistical framework for the analysis of quantum algorithms and quantum simulation.

Abstract:
In the last few years, theoretical study of quantum systems serving as computational devices has achieved tremendous progress. We now have strong theoretical evidence that quantum computers, if built, might be used as a dramatically powerful computational tool. This review is about to tell the story of theoretical quantum computation. I left out the developing topic of experimental realizations of the model, and neglected other closely related topics which are quantum information and quantum communication. As a result of narrowing the scope of this paper, I hope it has gained the benefit of being an almost self contained introduction to the exciting field of quantum computation. The review begins with background on theoretical computer science, Turing machines and Boolean circuits. In light of these models, I define quantum computers, and discuss the issue of universal quantum gates. Quantum algorithms, including Shor's factorization algorithm and Grover's algorithm for searching databases, are explained. I will devote much attention to understanding what the origins of the quantum computational power are, and what the limits of this power are. Finally, I describe the recent theoretical results which show that quantum computers maintain their complexity power even in the presence of noise, inaccuracies and finite precision. I tried to put all results in their context, asking what the implications to other issues in computer science and physics are. In the end of this review I make these connections explicit, discussing the possible implications of quantum computation on fundamental physical questions, such as the transition from quantum to classical physics.

Abstract:
The experimental realisation of the basic constituents of quantum information processing devices, namely fault-tolerant quantum logic gates, requires conditional quantum dynamics, in which one subsystem undergoes a coherent evolution that depends on the quantum state of another subsystem. In particular, the subsystem may acquire a conditional phase shift. Here we consider a novel scenario in which this phase is of geometric rather than dynamical origin. As the conditional geometric (Berry) phase depends only on the geometry of the path executed it is resilient to certain types of errors, and offers the potential of an intrinsically fault-tolerant way of performing quantum gates. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has already been used to demonstrate both simple quantum information processing and Berry's phase. Here we report an NMR experiment which implements a conditional Berry phase, and thus a controlled phase shift gate. This constitutes the first elementary geometric quantum computation.