Abstract:
We show how to construct quantum gate arrays that can be programmed to perform different unitary operations on a data register, depending on the input to some program register. It is shown that a universal quantum gate array - a gate array which can be programmed to perform any unitary operation - exists only if one allows the gate array to operate in a probabilistic fashion. The universal quantum gate array we construct requires an exponentially smaller number of gates than a classical universal gate array.

Abstract:
This note proves that arbitrary local gates together with any entangling bipartite gate V are universal. Previously this was known only when access to both V and V^{-1} was given, or when approximate universality was demanded.

Abstract:
Any non-affine one-to-one binary gate can be wired together with suitable inputs to give AND, OR, NOT and fan-out gates, and so suffices to construct a general-purpose computer.

Abstract:
Which gates are universal for quantum computation? Although it is well known that certain gates on two-level quantum systems (qubits), such as the controlled-not (CNOT), are universal when assisted by arbitrary one-qubit gates, it has only recently become clear precisely what class of two-qubit gates is universal in this sense. Here we present an elementary proof that any entangling two-qubit gate is universal for quantum computation, when assisted by one-qubit gates. A proof of this important result for systems of arbitrary finite dimension has been provided by J. L. and R. Brylinski [arXiv:quant-ph/0108062, 2001]; however, their proof relies upon a long argument using advanced mathematics. In contrast, our proof provides a simple constructive procedure which is close to optimal and experimentally practical [C. M. Dawson and A. Gilchrist, online implementation of the procedure described herein (2002), http://www.physics.uq.edu.au/gqc/].

Abstract:
We use representations of operator systems as quotients to deduce various characterisations of the weak expectation property (WEP) for C?*-algebras. By Kirchberg's work on WEP, these results give new formulations of Connes' embedding problem.

Abstract:
Variational inference is a powerful concept that underlies many iterative approximation algorithms; expectation propagation, mean-field methods and belief propagations were all central themes at the school that can be perceived from this unifying framework. The lectures of Manfred Opper introduce the archetypal example of Expectation Propagation, before establishing the connection with the other approximation methods. Corrections by expansion about the expectation propagation are then explained. Finally some advanced inference topics and applications are explored in the final sections.

Abstract:
In contrast to the “programmed” nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the “accidental” death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being “programmed” is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process.

Abstract:
Given an operator $T:U_X(\Sigma)\to Y$ or ${T:U(\Sigma)\to Y$, one may consider the net of conditional expectation operators $(T_\pi)$ directed by refinement of the partitions $\pi$. It has been shown previously that $(T_\pi)$ does not always converge to $T$. This paper gives several conditions under which this convergence does occur, including complete characterizations when $X={\bold R}$ or when $X\sp *$ has the Radon-Nikod\'ym property.

Abstract:
We give a characterization of conditional expectation operators through a disjointness type property similar to band preserving operators. We say that the operator $T:X\to X$ on a Banach lattice $X$ is semi band preserving if and only if for all $f, g \in X$, $f \perp Tg$ implies that $Tf \perp Tg$. We prove that when $X$ is a purely atomic Banach lattice, then an operator $T$ on $X$ is a weighted conditional expectation operator if and only if $T$ is semi band preserving.

Abstract:
In this paper we consider two ways to generalize the mathematical expectation of a random variable, the Choquet expectation and Peng's g-expectation. An open question has been, after making suitable restrictions to the class of random variables acted on by the Choquet expectation, for what class of expectation do these two definitions coincide? In this paper we provide a necessary and sufficient condition which proves that the only expectation which lies in both classes is the traditional linear expectation. This settles another open question about whether Choquet expectation may be used to obtain Monte Carlo-like solution of nonlinear PDE: It cannot, except for some very special cases.