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Is the number of Photons a Classical Invariant?  [PDF]
J. E. Avron,E. Berg,D. Goldsmith,A. Gordon
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1088/0143-0807/20/3/304
Abstract: We describe an apparent puzzle in classical electrodynamics and its resolution. It is concerned with the Lorentz invariance of the classical analog of the number of photons.
A study on black-body radiation: classical and binary photons  [PDF]
Sandor Varro
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1556/APH.26.2006.3-4.18
Abstract: The present study gives a detailed analysis of the black-body radiation based on classical random variables. It is shown that the energy of a mode of a chaotic radiation field (Gauss variable) can be uniquely decomposed into a sum of a discrete variable (Planck variable having the Planck-Bose distribution) and a continuous dark variable (with a truncated exponential distribution of finite support). The Planck variable is decomposed, on one hand, into a sum of binary variables representing the binary photons of energies 2^s*h*nu with s=0,1,2,etc. In this way the black-body radiation can be viewed as a mixture of thermodinamically independent fermion gases. The Planck variable can also be decomposed into a sum of independent Poisson components representing the classical photo-molecules of energies m*h*nu with m=1,2,3,etc. These classical photons have only particle-like fluctuations, on the other hand, the binary photons have wave-particle fluctuations of fermionic character.
On the Spectrum of Field Quadratures for a Finite Number of Photons  [PDF]
Emilio Pisanty,Eduardo Nahmad-Achar
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/45/39/395303
Abstract: The spectrum and eigenstates of any field quadrature operator restricted to a finite number $N$ of photons are studied, in terms of the Hermite polynomials. By (naturally) defining \textit{approximate} eigenstates, which represent highly localized wavefunctions with up to $N$ photons, one can arrive at an appropriate notion of limit for the spectrum of the quadrature as $N$ goes to infinity, in the sense that the limit coincides with the spectrum of the infinite-dimensional quadrature operator. In particular, this notion allows the spectra of truncated phase operators to tend to the complete unit circle, as one would expect. A regular structure for the zeros of the Christoffel-Darboux kernel is also shown.
Number of photons and brilliance of the radiation from a crystalline undulator  [PDF]
A. V. Korol,A. V. Solov'yov,W. Greiner
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1117/12.639952
Abstract: The scheme for accurate quantitative treatment of the radiation from a crystalline undulator in presence of the dechanneling and the photon attenuation is presented. The number of emitted photons and the brilliance of electromagnetic radiation generated by ultra-relativistic positrons channeling in a crystalline undulator are calculated for various crystals, positron energies and different bending parameters. It is demonstrated that with the use of high-energy positron beams available at present in modern colliders it is possible to generate the crystalline undulator radiation with energies from hundreds of keV up to tens of MeV region. The brilliance of the undulator radiation within this energy range is comparable to that of conventional light sources of the third generation but for much lower photon energies.
On the distribution of the number of fixed vectors for the finite classical groups  [PDF]
Jason Fulman,Dennis Stanton
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Motivated by analogous results for the symmetric group and compact Lie groups, we study the distribution of the number of fixed vectors of a random element of a finite classical group. We determine the limiting moments of these distributions, and find exactly how large the rank of the group has to be in order for the moment to stabilize to its limiting value. The proofs require a subtle use of some q-series identities. We also point out connections with orthogonal polynomials.
The number of regular semisimple conjugacy classes in the finite classical groups  [PDF]
Jason Fulman,Robert Guralnick
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Using generating functions, we enumerate regular semisimple conjugacy classes in the finite classical groups. For the general linear, unitary, and symplectic groups this gives a different approach to known results; for the special orthogonal groups the results are new.
Semi-classical calculation of the number of photons emitted by a relativistic neutrino with mass and magnetic moment passing through a transverse magnetic field  [PDF]
J. D. Jackson
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: A classical calculation, modified by Compton-recoil kinematics, of the radiation emitted by a relativistic neutrino with mass and a magnetic moment passing through a transverse magnetic field. The calculation is performed in the neutrinos rest frame by the method of virtual quanta. The total number N of virtual quanta scattered by the neutrino is determined. The semi-classical result for the analog of the Klein-Nishina formula is compared with a QED calculation of the photon scattering cross section. The different angular distributions, both strongly peaked, lead to a factor of two difference between the QED and semi-classical results for N.
Bremsstrahlung Radiation as Coherent State in Thermal QED  [PDF]
Enke Wang,Jun Xiao,Hanzhong Zhang
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/27/12/301
Abstract: Based on fully finite temperature field theory we investigate the radiation probability in the bremsstrahlung process in thermal QED. It turns out that the infrared divergences resulting from the emission and absorption of the real photons are canceled by the virtual photon exchange processes at finite temperature. The full quantum calculation results for soft photons radiation coincide completely with that obtained in the semi-classical approximation. In the framework of Thermofield Dynamics it is shown that the bremsstrahlung radiation in thermal QED is a coherent state, the quasiclassical behavior of the coherent state leads to above coincidence.
Finite size corrections to the radiation reaction force in classical electrodynamics  [PDF]
Chad R. Galley,Adam K. Leibovich,Ira Z. Rothstein
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.094802
Abstract: We introduce an effective field theory approach that describes the motion of finite size objects under the influence of electromagnetic fields. We prove that leading order effects due to the finite radius $R$ of a spherically symmetric charge is order $R^2$ rather than order $R$ in any physical model, as widely claimed in the literature. This scaling arises as a consequence of Poincar\'e and gauge symmetries, which can be shown to exclude linear corrections. We use the formalism to calculate the leading order finite size correction to the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force.
Exact solution of the EM radiation-reaction problem for classical finite-size and Lorentzian charged particles  [PDF]
Claudio Cremaschini,Massimo Tessarotto
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1140/epjp/i2011-11042-8
Abstract: An exact solution is given to the classical electromagnetic (EM) radiation-reaction (RR) problem, originally posed by Lorentz. This refers to the dynamics of classical non-rotating and quasi-rigid finite size particles subject to an external prescribed EM field. A variational formulation of the problem is presented. It is shown that a covariant representation for the EM potential of the self-field generated by the extended charge can be uniquely determined, consistent with the principles of classical electrodynamics and relativity. By construction, the retarded self 4-potential does not possess any divergence, contrary to the case of point charges. As a fundamental consequence, based on Hamilton variational principle, an exact representation is obtained for the relativistic equation describing the dynamics of a finite-size charged particle (RR equation), which is shown to be realized by a second-order delay-type ODE. Such equation is proved to apply also to the treatment of Lorentzian particles, i.e., point-masses with finite-size charge distributions, and to recover the usual LAD equation in a suitable asymptotic approximation. Remarkably, the RR equation admits both standard Lagrangian and conservative forms, expressed respectively in terms of a non-local effective Lagrangian and a stress-energy tensor. Finally, consistent with the Newton principle of determinacy, it is proved that the corresponding initial-value problem admits a local existence and uniqueness theorem, namely it defines a classical dynamical system.
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