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 Physics , 2009, Abstract: We present initial results from a new 440-ks Chandra HETG GTO observation of the canonical Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The proximity of NGC 1068, together with Chandra's superb spatial and spectral resolution, allow an unprecedented view of its nucleus and circumnuclear NLR. We perform the first spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the ionization cone' in any AGN, and use the sensitive line diagnostics offered by the HETG to measure the ionization state, density, and temperature at discrete points along the ionized NLR. We argue that the NLR takes the form of outflowing photoionized gas, rather than gas that has been collisionally ionized by the small-scale radio jet in NGC 1068. We investigate evidence for any velocity gradients in the outflow, and describe our next steps in modeling the spatially resolved spectra as a function of distance from the nucleus.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1142/S2010194512004977 Abstract: In this paper a spatially resolved, fully self-consistent SSC model is presented. The observable spectral energy distribution (SED) evolves entirely from a low energetic delta distribution of injected electrons by means of the implemented microphysics of the jet. These are in particular the properties of the shock and the ambient plasma, which can be varied along the jet axis. Hence a large variety of scenarios can be computed, e.g. the acceleration of particles via multiple shocks. Two acceleration processes, shock acceleration and stochastic acceleration, are taken into account. From the resulting electron distribution the SED is calculated taking into account synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering (full cross section) and synchrotron self absorption. The model can explain SEDs where cooling processes are crucial. It can verify high variability results from acausal simulations and produce variability not only via injection of particles, but due to the presence of multiple shocks. Furthermore a fit of the data, obtained in the 2010 multi-frequency campaign of Mrk501, is presented.
 Physics , 2009, Abstract: We present initial results from a new 440-ks Chandra HETG GTO observation of the canonical Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The proximity of NGC 1068, together with Chandra's superb spatial and spectral resolution, allow an unprecedented view of its nucleus and circumnuclear NLR. We perform the first spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the ionization cone' in any AGN, and use the sensitive line diagnostics offered by the HETG to measure the ionization state, density, and temperature at discrete points along the ionized NLR. We argue that the NLR takes the form of outflowing photoionized gas, rather than gas that has been collisionally ionized by the small-scale radio jet in NGC 1068. We investigate evidence for any velocity gradients in the outflow, and describe our next steps in modeling the spatially resolved spectra as a function of distance from the nucleus.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345610 Abstract: Chandra observations of M31 allow the first spatially resolved X-ray image of a supernova remnant (SNR) in an external spiral galaxy. CXOM31 J004327.7+411829 is a slightly elongated ring-shaped object with a diameter of ~11'' (42 pc). In addition, the X-ray image hints that the chemical composition of the SNR is spatial dependent. The X-ray spectrum of the SNR can be well fitted with a Raymond-Smith model or a non-equilibrium ionization model. Depending on the spectral model, the 0.3-7 keV luminosity is between 3.2x10^36 erg/s and 4.5x10^37 erg/s. The age of the SNR is estimated to be 3210-22300 years and the number density of ambient gas is ~0.003-0.3 cm^-3. This suggests that the local interstellar medium around the SNR is low.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2320 Abstract: We conduct a detailed case-study of the interstellar shell near the high-mass X-ray binary, Cygnus X-1. We present new WIYN optical spectroscopic and Chandra X-ray observations of this region, which we compare with detailed MAPPINGS III shock models, to investigate the outflow powering the shell. Our analysis places improved, physically motivated constraints on the nature of the shockwave and the interstellar medium (ISM) it is plowing through. We find that the shock is traveling at less than a few hundred km/s through a low-density ISM (< 5 cm^-3). We calculate a robust, 3 sigma upper limit to the total, time-averaged power needed to drive the shockwave and inflate the bubble, < 2 x 10^38 erg/s. We then review possible origins of the shockwave. We find that a supernova origin to the shockwave is unlikely and that the black hole jet and/or O-star wind can both be central drivers of the shockwave. We conclude that the source of the Cygnus X-1 shockwave is far from solved.
 Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/311106 Abstract: Visual and ultraviolet spatially resolved (~ 0."1) spectra of SN 1987A obtained on days 3715 and 3743 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope show that the high-velocity SN debris is colliding with circumstellar gas. Very broad Ly-alpha emission with velocities extending to ~ +/- 20,000 km/s originates inside the inner circumstellar ring and appears to fill most of the surface area within 0."67 +/- 0."03 (0.14 pc at a distance of 50 kpc) of the ring's center. The observed Ly-alpha flux from the shocked ejecta is (1.85 +/- 0.53) 10^{-13} erg/cm2/s and (1.25 +/- 0.51) 10^{-12} erg/cm2/s after correcting for extinction. A spatially unresolved blue-shifted emission feature was discovered in H-alpha (and other lines) on the inner ring at p.a. 31 +/- 8 degree. The H-alpha emission extends to -250 km/s with no corresponding red-shifted emission. This highly localized interaction appears to be the initial contact of the supernova blast wave with an inward protrusion of the inner ring. The broad Ly-alpha emission and the `hot spot' are separate interaction phemonena associated with the reverse and forward shocks, respectively. We also find that the size of the inner ring in forbidden lines of oxygen has a dependence on ionization potential, in agreement with photoionization models of the ring.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/55 Abstract: We have obtained a deep, sub-arcsecond resolution X-ray image of the nuclear region of the luminous galaxy merger NGC 6240 with Chandra, which resolves the X-ray emission from the pair of active nuclei and the diffuse hot gas in great detail. We detect extended hard X-ray emission from kT~6 keV (~70 million K) hot gas over a spatial scale of 5 kpc, indicating the presence of fast shocks with velocity of ~2200 km/s. For the first time we obtain the spatial distribution of this highly ionized gas emitting FeXXV, which shows a remarkable correspondence to the large scale morphology of H_2(1-0) S(1) line emission and H\alpha filaments. Propagation of fast shocks originated in the starburst driven wind into the ambient dense gas can account for this morphological correspondence. With an observed L(0.5-8 keV)=5.3E+41 erg/s, the diffuse hard X-ray emission is 100 times more luminous than that observed in the classic starburst galaxy M82. Assuming a filling factor of 1% for the 70 MK temperature gas, we estimate its total mass (M_{hot}=1.8E+8 Msun) and thermal energy (E_{th}=6.5E+57 ergs). The total iron mass in the highly ionized plasma is M_{Fe}=4.6E+5 Msun. Both the energetics and the iron mass in the hot gas are consistent with the expected injection from the supernovae explosion during the starburst that is commensurate with its high star formation rate. No evidence for fluorescent Fe I emission is found in the CO filament connecting the two nuclei.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/2/99 Abstract: The XA region of the Cygnus Loop is a bright knot of X-ray emission on the eastern edge of the supernova remnant resulting from the interaction of the supernova blast wave with density enhancements at the edge of a precursor formed cavity. To study the nature and origin of the X-ray emission we use high spatial resolution images from Chandra. Our goal is to probe the density of various spectral extraction regions to form a picture of the cavity wall and characterize the interaction between this supernova and the local interstellar medium. We find that a series of regions along the edge of the X-ray emission appears to trace out the location of the cavity wall. The best fit plasma models result in two temperature component equilibrium models for each region. The low temperature components have densities that are an order of magnitude higher than the high temperature components. The high density plasma may exist in the cavity wall where it equilibrates rapidly and cools efficiently. The low density plasma is interior to the enhancement and heated further by a reverse shock from the wall. Calculations of shock velocities and timescales since shock heating are consistent with this interpretation. Furthermore, we find a bright knot of emission indicative of a discrete interaction of the blast wave with a high density cloud in the cavity wall with a size scale ~0.1 pc. Aside from this, other extractions made interior to the X-ray edge are confused by line of sight projection of various components. Some of these regions show evidence of detecting the cavity wall but their location makes the interpretation difficult. In general, the softer plasmas are well fit at temperatures kT~0.11 keV, with harder plasmas at temperatures of kT~0.27 keV. All regions display consistent metal depletions most notably in N, O, and Ne at an average of 0.54, 0.55, and 0.36 times solar.
 Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/324200 Abstract: We report Chandra ACIS and quasi-simultaneous RXTE observations of the nearby, powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A, with the present paper focusing on the properties of the active nucleus. In the Chandra observation, the hard (> a few keV) X-ray emission is spatially unresolved with a size \approxlt 1 arcsec (1.5 kpc, H_0 = 50 km s^-1 Mpc^-1) and coincides with the radio and near infrared nuclei. In contrast, the soft (< 2 keV) emission exhibits a bi-polar nebulosity that aligns with the optical bi-polar continuum and emission-line structures and approximately with the radio jet. In particular, the soft X-ray emission corresponds very well with the [O III] \lambda 5007 and H\alpha + [N II] \lambda\lambda 6548, 6583 nebulosity imaged with HST. At the location of the nucleus there is only weak soft X-ray emission, an effect that may be intrinsic or result from a dust lane that crosses the nucleus perpendicular to the source axis. The spectra of the various X-ray components have been obtained by simultaneous fits to the 6 detectors. The compact nucleus is detected to 100 keV and is well described by a heavily absorbed power law spectrum with \Gamma_h = 1.52^{+0.12}_{-0.12} (similar to other narrow line radio galaxies) and equivalent hydrogen column N_H (nuc) = 2.0^{+0.1}_{-0.2} \times 10^{23} cm^-2. (Abstract truncated).
 Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/324603 Abstract: We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of a Balmer filament in the northeast region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. The data consist of one spectrum obtained through the 30"x30" (LWRS) aperture and three spectra at adjacent positions obtained through the 4"x20" (MDRS) aperture. The nonradiative shocks in the region giving rise to these faint optical filaments produce strong OVI 1032,1038 emission, which is detected in all the spectra. The OVI emission is resolved by FUSE into a strong component centered at 0 km/s, and weaker components centered at +/- 140 km/s. The MDRS spectra allow us to study the variation of OVI emission in the post-shock structure. We find that the zero velocity emission is associated directly with the Balmer filament shock, while the high velocity emission comes from a more uniformly distributed component elsewhere along the line of sight. We also find that the shocks producing the emission at +/- 140 km/s have velocities between 180 km/s and 220 km/s, if we assume that the ram pressure driving them is the same as for the zero velocity component shock. In the context of the cavity model for the Cygnus Loop, the interaction of the blast wave with the spherical shell that forms most of the cavity wall can naturally give rise to the similar red and blue-shifted components that are observed.
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