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Simple Systems - Complex Capacities. Integrative Processes of Computational Morphogenesis in Architecture  [cached]
Achim Menges
Techne : Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: The complexity of the cultural, social, economical and particularly ecological context in which architecture is practised today necessitates design strategies and tactics that achieve a high level of integration of seemingly opposed demands and criteria within the material and construction systems we design. One possibility of unfolding novel synergies in such extreme conditions is to utilize the capacity of computers in the design process in an alternative way, one that foregrounds and instrumentalizes the innate capacities of materials, manufacturing and construction processes rather than merely elaborating form in the digital realm. The computational approach that will be presented here questions the nature of current design processes, but it is not a call for the replacement of the architect by computer driven design. Rather, under this approach, architects, instead of creating exuberant shapes subsequently rationalised for constructability and superimposed functions, are able to define specific material and construction systems by the combined logics of formation and materialisation encoded in generative processes of computational morphogenesis.
Fedora: An Architecture for Complex Objects and their Relationships  [PDF]
Carl Lagoze,Sandy Payette,Edwin Shin,Chris Wilper
Computer Science , 2005,
Abstract: The Fedora architecture is an extensible framework for the storage, management, and dissemination of complex objects and the relationships among them. Fedora accommodates the aggregation of local and distributed content into digital objects and the association of services with objects. This al-lows an object to have several accessible representations, some of them dy-namically produced. The architecture includes a generic RDF-based relation-ship model that represents relationships among objects and their components. Queries against these relationships are supported by an RDF triple store. The architecture is implemented as a web service, with all aspects of the complex object architecture and related management functions exposed through REST and SOAP interfaces. The implementation is available as open-source soft-ware, providing the foundation for a variety of end-user applications for digital libraries, archives, institutional repositories, and learning object systems.
The architecture of complex weighted networks  [PDF]
Alain Barrat,Marc Barthelemy,Romualdo Pastor-Satorras,Alessandro Vespignani
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0400087101
Abstract: Networked structures arise in a wide array of different contexts such as technological and transportation infrastructures, social phenomena, and biological systems. These highly interconnected systems have recently been the focus of a great deal of attention that has uncovered and characterized their topological complexity. Along with a complex topological structure, real networks display a large heterogeneity in the capacity and intensity of the connections. These features, however, have mainly not been considered in past studies where links are usually represented as binary states, i.e. either present or absent. Here, we study the scientific collaboration network and the world-wide air-transportation network, which are representative examples of social and large infrastructure systems, respectively. In both cases it is possible to assign to each edge of the graph a weight proportional to the intensity or capacity of the connections among the various elements of the network. We define new appropriate metrics combining weighted and topological observables that enable us to characterize the complex statistical properties and heterogeneity of the actual strength of edges and vertices. This information allows us to investigate for the first time the correlations among weighted quantities and the underlying topological structure of the network. These results provide a better description of the hierarchies and organizational principles at the basis of the architecture of weighted networks.
ARCHITECTURE OF DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS Архитектуры систем поддержки принятия решений
Kluchko V. I.,Shumkov Y. A.,Vlasenko A. V.,Karnizian R. O.
Polythematic Online Scientific Journal of Kuban State Agrarian University , 2013,
Abstract: The article describes the architecture of decision support systems and proposes general architecture of the modern decision support systems
An Architecture Framework for Complex Data Warehouses  [PDF]
Jér?me Darmont,Omar Boussaid,Jean-Christian Ralaivao,Kamel Aouiche
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: Nowadays, many decision support applications need to exploit data that are not only numerical or symbolic, but also multimedia, multistructure, multisource, multimodal, and/or multiversion. We term such data complex data. Managing and analyzing complex data involves a lot of different issues regarding their structure, storage and processing, and metadata are a key element in all these processes. Such problems have been addressed by classical data warehousing (i.e., applied to "simple" data). However, data warehousing approaches need to be adapted for complex data. In this paper, we first propose a precise, though open, definition of complex data. Then we present a general architecture framework for warehousing complex data. This architecture heavily relies on metadata and domain-related knowledge, and rests on the XML language, which helps storing data, metadata and domain-specific knowledge altogether, and facilitates communication between the various warehousing processes.
An Architecture for Interoperability of Embedded Systems and Virtual Reality
Koppen Veit,Siegmund Norbert,Soffner Michael,Saake Gunter
IETE Technical Review , 2009,
Abstract: Virtual Reality enhances the development process of complex and inter-operating products due to bringing existing systems together with virtual prototypes. The modeling of existing products within the virtual reality environment and furthermore the properties of products and product combination are important factors for success in a product life cycle. A reduction of effort for modeling of existing products and simulation of properties can be achieved, when systems and their properties are transported to the virtual reality environment. In this paper, we present a service-oriented architecture for embedded systems and virtual reality. The multiplicity of interfaces, protocols, and hardware and software aspects requires an architecture that overcomes the related difficulties to increase efficiency. Service-oriented architectures make different scenarios in the product life cycle possible, whereas the implementation effort for embedded systems is reduced due to software reuse.
The Complex Genetic Architecture of the Metabolome  [PDF]
Eva K. F. Chan,Heather C. Rowe,Bjarne G. Hansen,Daniel J. Kliebenstein
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001198
Abstract: Discovering links between the genotype of an organism and its metabolite levels can increase our understanding of metabolism, its controls, and the indirect effects of metabolism on other quantitative traits. Recent technological advances in both DNA sequencing and metabolite profiling allow the use of broad-spectrum, untargeted metabolite profiling to generate phenotypic data for genome-wide association studies that investigate quantitative genetic control of metabolism within species. We conducted a genome-wide association study of natural variation in plant metabolism using the results of untargeted metabolite analyses performed on a collection of wild Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Testing 327 metabolites against >200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified numerous genotype–metabolite associations distributed non-randomly within the genome. These clusters of genotype–metabolite associations (hotspots) included regions of the A. thaliana genome previously identified as subject to recent strong positive selection (selective sweeps) and regions showing trans-linkage to these putative sweeps, suggesting that these selective forces have impacted genome-wide control of A. thaliana metabolism. Comparing the metabolic variation detected within this collection of wild accessions to a laboratory-derived population of recombinant inbred lines (derived from two of the accessions used in this study) showed that the higher level of genetic variation present within the wild accessions did not correspond to higher variance in metabolic phenotypes, suggesting that evolutionary constraints limit metabolic variation. While a major goal of genome-wide association studies is to develop catalogues of intraspecific variation, the results of multiple independent experiments performed for this study showed that the genotype–metabolite associations identified are sensitive to environmental fluctuations. Thus, studies of intraspecific variation conducted via genome-wide association will require analyses of genotype by environment interaction. Interestingly, the network structure of metabolite linkages was also sensitive to environmental differences, suggesting that key aspects of network architecture are malleable.
The complex architecture of primes and natural numbers  [PDF]
Guillermo Garcia-Perez,M. Angeles Serrano,Marian Boguna
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.022806
Abstract: Natural numbers can be divided in two non-overlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cram\'er's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cram\'er's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.
A Software Architecture for Adaptive Modular Sensing Systems  [PDF]
Andrew C. Lyle,Michael D. Naish
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100807514
Abstract: By combining a number of simple transducer modules, an arbitrarily complex sensing system may be produced to accommodate a wide range of applications. This work outlines a novel software architecture and knowledge representation scheme that has been developed to support this type of flexible and reconfigurable modular sensing system. Template algorithms are used to embed intelligence within each module. As modules are added or removed, the composite sensor is able to automatically determine its overall geometry and assume an appropriate collective identity. A virtual machine-based middleware layer runs on top of a real-time operating system with a pre-emptive kernel, enabling platform-independent template algorithms to be written once and run on any module, irrespective of its underlying hardware architecture. Applications that may benefit from easily reconfigurable modular sensing systems include flexible inspection, mobile robotics, surveillance, and space exploration.
Trust Architecture in Dynamic Systems
Guo Yajun,Yu Zhongqiang,Chen Hao,Dong Huihui
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2009, DOI: 10.1080/15501320802508378
Abstract: Trust is the key for an information system to make security decisions. There does not exist in an aforehand trust relationship among principals in dynamic systems. To secure transaction, trust relationship must be established in principals. However, the existing trust architectures are flat, so they cannot embody well the dynamic characteristic of trust and do not take on well operability. In this paper, a two-layer trust architecture for dynamic systems is presented. Trust in this model is composed of a basic trust layer and a dynamic trust layer. Basic trust depends on the attributes of a principal, recommendation, or experience, while dynamic trust relies on the application context. This trust structure can reduce the complexity of making a decision in dynamic system.
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