Abstract:
We measure the frequency dependence of the complex ac conductivity of NbN films with different levels of disorder in frequency range 0.4-20 GHz. Films with low disorder exhibit a narrow dynamic fluctuation regime above T_c as expected for a conventional superconductor. However, for strongly disordered samples, the fluctuation regime extends well above T_c, with a strongly frequency-dependent superfluid stiffness which disappears only at a temperature T* close to the pseudogap temperature obtained from scanning tunneling measurements. Such a finite-frequency response is associated to a marked slowing down of the superconducting fluctuations already below T*. The corresponding large length-scale fluctuations suggest a scenario of thermal phase fluctuations between superconducting domains in a strongly disordered s-wave superconductor.

Abstract:
We present the first demonstration of vortices in an electron-type cuprate superconductor, the highest $T_c$ (= 43 K) electron-type cuprate $Sr_{0.9}La_{0.1}CuO_2$. Our spatially resolved quasiparticle tunneling spectra reveal a hidden low-energy pseudogap inside the vortex core and unconventional spectral evolution with temperature and magnetic field. These results cannot be easily explained by the scenario of pure superconductivity in the ground state of high-$T_c$ superconductivity.

Abstract:
This paper reports the synthesis and superconducting behaviors of the tetragonal iron-chalcogenide superconductor FeSe. The electrical resistivity and magnetic moment measurements confirmed its superconductivity with a $T_c^{zero}$ and $T_c^{mag}$ at 9.4 K under ambient pressure. EPMA indicated the sample to have a stoichiometric Fe:Se ratio of 1:1 ($\pm$0.02). The Seebeck coefficient which was 12.3 $\mu$V/K at room temperature, changed to a negative value near 200 K, indicating it to be a two carriers material. Above $T_c$, the $\rho(T)$ curve revealed an 'S' shape. Hence $d\rho(T)/dT$, and $d^2\rho(T)/dT^2$ showed pseudogap-like behavior at $T^*$=110 K according to the resistivity curvature mapping (RCM) method for high $T_c$ cuprates. Moreover, the magnetoresistance $\rho_H(T)/\rho_{H=0}$ under a magnetic field and the Seebeck coefficient $S(T)$ revealed revealed pseudogap-like behavior near $T^*$. Interestingly, at the same temperature, 30 K, the sign of $S(T)$ and all signs of $d^2\rho(T)/dT^2$ changed from negative to positive above $T_c$.

Abstract:
The density of states modulation recently observed by the scanning tunneling microscopic experiment in the pseudogap state of high-$T_c$ superconductors is explained by the pairing assisted particle transitions under perturbation of a periodic pairing interaction. In such a transition process, a particle with momentum ${\bf k}$ firstly picks up another particle of inverse spin to produce a pair leaving a hole. Under the perturbation of periodic pairing interaction of modulation wave vector ${\bf Q}$, the pair absorbs a momentum ${\bf Q}$ and then breaks into two single-particles: one propagates with momentum ${\bf k+Q}$, and another one fills in the hole. The transition is significant at low energies within the pseudogap since where the pairing excitations most favorably survive. We calculate the Fourier component of the modulated density of states using two different models. Both of the theoretical results are consistent with the experiment.

Abstract:
Motivated by the STM experimental data on Bi_2 Sr_2 CaCU_2 O_{8+x} which indicate the tunneling conductance asymmetry sigma(-V) not equal sigma(V), we report that such a behavior can be explained in terms of the boson fermion model. It has been shown in the recent studies, based on various selfconsistent techniques to capture the many-body effects, that the low energy spectrum of the boson fermion model is featured by an appearance of the pseudogap at T^* > T_c. We argue that the pseudogap structure has to exhibit a particle-hole asymmetry. This asymmetry may eventually depend on the boson concentration.

Abstract:
One of the leading issues in high-$T_C$ superconductors is the origin of the pseudogap phase in underdoped cuprates. Using polarized elastic neutron diffraction, we identify a novel magnetic order in the YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+x}$ system. The observed magnetic order preserves translational symmetry as proposed for orbital moments in the circulating current theory of the pseudogap state. To date, it is the first direct evidence of an hidden order parameter characterizing the pseudogap phase in high-$T_C$ cuprates.

Abstract:
We report spatially resolved tunneling spectroscopic evidence for field-induced microscopic orders in a high-$T_c$ superconductor $\rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-\delta}$. The spectral characteristics inside vortices reveal a pseudogap ($V_{\rm CO}$) larger than the superconducting gap ($\Delta\_{\rm SC}$) as well as a subgap ($\Delta\^{\prime}$) smaller than $\Delta\_{\rm SC}$, and the spectral weight shifts steadily from $\Delta_{\rm SC}$ to $V_{\rm CO}$ and $\Delta\^{\prime}$ upon increasing magnetic field. Additionally, energy-independent conductance modulations at 3.6 and 7.1 lattice constants along the Cu-O bonding directions and at 9.5 lattice constants along the nodal directions are manifested in the vortex state. These wave-vectors differ fundamentally from the strongly dispersive modes due to Bogoliubov quasiparticle scattering interferences and may be associated with field-induced microscopic orders of pair-, charge- and spin-density waves.

Abstract:
The appearance of the Fermi arcs or gapless regions at the nodes of the Fermi surface just above the critical temperature is described through self-consistent calculations in an electronic disordered medium. We develop a model for cuprate superconductors based on an array of Josephson junctions formed by grains of inhomogeneous electronic density derived from a phase separation transition. This approach provides physical insights to the most important properties of these materials like the pseudogap phase as forming by the onset of local (intragrain) superconducting amplitudes and the zero resistivity critical temperature $T_c$ due to phase coherence activated by Josephson coupling. The formation of the Fermi arcs and the dichotomy in k-space follows from the direction dependence of the junctions tunneling current on the d-wave symmetry on the $CuO_2$ planes. We show that this semi-phenomenological approach reproduces also the main future of the cuprates phase diagram.

Abstract:
We report on a study of the electromagnetic response of three different families of high-T_c superconductors that in combination allowed us to cover the whole doping range from under- to overdoped. The discussion is focused on the ab-plane charge dynamics in the {\it pseudogap state} which is realized in underdoped materials below a characteristic temperature T^*; a temperature that can significantly exceed the superconducting transition temperature T_c. We explore the evolution of the pseudogap response by changing the doping level, by varying the temperature from the above to below T^*, or by introducing impurities in the underdoped compounds. We employ a memory-function analysis of the ab-plane optical data that allows us to observe the effect of the pseudogap most clearly. We compare the infrared data with other experimental results, including c-axis optical response, dc transport, and angular resolved photoemission.

Abstract:
To investigate the origin of the enhanced $T_c$ ($\approx$ 110 K) of the trilayer cuprate superconductor Bi$_{2}$Sr$_{2}$Ca$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{10+\delta}$ (Bi-2223), we have performed systematic magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on this superconductor, as well as on the bilayer superconductor, Bi$_{2}$Sr$_{2}$CaCu$_{2}$O$_{8+\delta}$ (Bi-2212). The in-plane coherence length, $\xi_{ab}$, and the specific-heat jump, ${\Delta}C$, have been estimated using the theory of renormalized superconductive fluctuations, and the doping dependence of these parameters has been qualitatively explained using the Fermi arc approach. A detailed comparison of the superconducting parameters with $T_c$ for these compounds suggests that an additional superconducting condensation energy exists, due to an increase in the number of stacking CuO$_{2}$ planes in a unit cell.