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Cross-Layer Design of an Energy-Efficient Cluster Formation Algorithm with Carrier-Sensing Multiple Access for Wireless Sensor Networks  [cached]
Buratti Chiara,Giorgetti Andrea,Verdone Roberto
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2005,
Abstract: A new energy-efficient scheme for data transmission in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed, having in mind a typical application including a sink, which periodically triggers the WSN, and nodes uniformly distributed over a specified area. Routing, multiple access control (MAC), physical, energy, and propagation aspects are jointly taken into account through simulation; however, the protocol design is based on some analytical considerations reported in the appendix. Information routing is based on a clustered self-organized structure; a carrier-sensing multiple access (CSMA) protocol is chosen at MAC layer. Two different scenarios are examined, characterized by different channel fading rates. Four versions of our protocol are presented, suitably oriented to the two different scenarios; two of them implement a cross-layer (CL) approach, where MAC parameters influence both the network and physical layers. Performance is measured in terms of network lifetime (related to energy efficiency) and packet loss rate (related to network availability). The paper discusses the rationale behind the selection of MAC protocols for WSNs and provides a complete model characterization spanning from the network layer to the propagation channel. The advantages of the CL approach, with respect to an algorithm which belongs to the well-known class of low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocols, are shown.
Cross-Layer Support for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
N. Chilamkurti,S. Zeadally,A. Vasilakos,V. Sharma
Journal of Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/134165
Abstract: The Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) algorithm computes a new route when packet loss occurs. DSR does not have an in-built mechanism to determine whether the packet loss was the result of congestion or node failure causing DSR to compute a new route. This leads to inefficient energy utilization when DSR is used in wireless sensor networks. In this work, we exploit cross-layer optimization techniques that extend DSR to improve its routing energy efficiency by minimizing the frequency of recomputed routes. Our proposed approach enables DSR to initiate a route discovery only when link failure occurs. We conducted extensive simulations to evaluate the performance of our proposed cross-layer DSR routing protocol. The simulation results obtained with our extended DSR routing protocol show that the frequency with which new routes are recomputed is 50% lower compared with the traditional DSR protocol. This improvement is attributed to the fact that, with our proposed cross-layer DSR, we distinguish between congestion and link failure conditions, and new routes are recalculated only for the latter.
An Efficient Mutual Authentication and Access Control Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks in Healthcare  [cached]
Xuan Hung Le,Murad Khalid,Ravi Sankar,Sungyoung Lee
Journal of Networks , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.6.3.355-364
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) will play an active role in the 21th Century Healthcare IT to reduce the healthcare cost and improve the quality of care. The protection of data confidentiality and patient privacy are the most critical requirements for the ubiquitous use of WSNs in healthcare environments. This requires a secure and lightweight user authentication and access control. Symmetric key - based access control is not suitable for WSNs in healthcare due to dynamic network topology, mobility, and stringent resource constraints. In this paper, we propose a secure, lightweight public key - based security scheme, Mutual Authentication and Access Control based on Elliptic curve cryptography (MAACE). MAACE is a mutual authentication protocol where a healthcare professional can authenticate to an accessed node (a PDA or medical sensor) and vice versa. This is to ensure that medical data is not exposed to an unauthorized person. On the other hand, it ensures that medical data sent to healthcare professionals did not originate from a malicious node. MAACE is more scalable and requires less memory compared to symmetric key-based schemes. Furthermore, it is much more lightweight than other public key-based schemes. Security analysis and performance evaluation results are presented and compared to existing schemes to show advantages of the proposed scheme.
An Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol with Parallel Transmission for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Mohammad Arifuzzaman,Mitsuji Matsumoto
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/jsan1020111
Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel low power medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The proposed protocol, EP-MAC (Efficient MAC with Parallel Transmission) achieves high energy efficiency and high packet delivery ratio under different traffic load. EP-MAC protocol is basically based on the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) approach. The power of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is used in order to offset the fundamental problems that the stand-alone TDMA method suffers from, i.e., problems such as lack of scalability, adaptability to varying situations, etc. The novel idea behind the EP-MAC is that it uses the parallel transmission concept with the TDMA link scheduling. EP-MAC uses the methods for the transmission power adjustment, i.e., uses the minimum level power necessary to reach the intended neighbor within a specified bit error rate [BER] target. This reduces energy consumption, as well as further enhances the scope of parallel transmission of the protocol. The simulation studies support the theoretical results, and validate the efficiency of our proposed EP-MAC protocol.
Energy-Efficient Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks  [cached]
Ren Qingchun,Liang Qilian
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2006,
Abstract: A key challenge for wireless sensor networks is how to extend network lifetime with dynamic power management on energy-constraint sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose two energy-efficient MAC protocols: asynchronous MAC (A-MAC) protocol and asynchronous schedule-based MAC (ASMAC) protocol. A-MAC and ASMAC protocols are attractive due to their suitabilities for multihop networks and capabilities of removing accumulative clock-drifts without any network synchronization. Moreover, we build a traffic-strength- and network-density-based model to adjust essential algorithm parameters adaptively. Simulation results show that our algorithms can successfully acquire the optimum values of power-on/off duration, schedule-broadcast interval, as well as super-time-slot size and order. These algorithm parameters can ensure adequate successful transmission rate, short waiting time, and high energy utilization. Therefore, not only the performance of network is improved but also its lifetime is extended when A-MAC or ASMAC is used.
GeoQuorum: Load Balancing and Energy Efficient Data Access in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Jun Luo,Ying He
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: When data productions and consumptions are heavily unbalanced and when the origins of data queries are spatially and temporally distributed, the so called in-network data storage paradigm supersedes the conventional data collection paradigm in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we first introduce geometric quorum systems (along with their metrics) to incarnate the idea of in-network data storage. These quorum systems are "geometric" because curves (rather than discrete node sets) are used to form quorums. We then propose GeoQuorum as a new quorum system, for which the quorum forming curves are parameterized. Though our proposal stems from the existing work on using curves to guide data replication and retrieval in dense WSNs, we significantly expand this design methodology, by endowing GeoQuorum with a great flexibility to fine-tune itself towards different application requirements. In particular, the tunability allows GeoQuorum to substantially improve the load balancing performance and to remain competitive in energy efficiency. Both our analysis and simulations confirm the performance enhancement brought by GeoQuorum.
Energy-Efficient Cross-Layer Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Yongqiang Fei, Peng Zhang, Yuping Zhao
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B2090

In this paper, we propose a cross-layer design combining adaptive modulation coding (AMC) and automatic repeat request (ARQ) to minimize the bit energy consumption under both packet loss rate and retransmission delay constraints. We analyze the best constellation size of M-ary square quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) in different distance, and give advice on retransmission limits under different packet loss rates. The impacts of path loss fading and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN)are taken into consideration. The computation of energy consumption includes the circuit, transmission and retransmission energies at both transmitter and receiver sides. Numerical results are obtained to verify the validity of our design. We also show that the retransmission benefit varies with the packet loss rate constraint.

An Energy Optimization Protocol Based on Cross-Layer for Wireless Sensor Networks  [cached]
Yuebin Bai,Shujuan Liu,Mo Sha,Yang Lu
Journal of Communications , 2008, DOI: 10.4304/jcm.3.6.27-34
Abstract: Survivability is one of the critical issues and the most important research topics in the fields of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Energy efficiency is one of the determining factors for survivability and lifetime of WSNs. In the WSNs, severe energy issue necessitates energy-efficient approach to fulfill application objectives. In this paper, we propose an Energy Optimization Approach based on Cross-Layer for Wireless Sensor Networks named as EOA, which consider the joint optimal design of the physical, medium access control (MAC), and routing layer. The focus of EOA is on the computation of optimal transmission power, routing, and duty-cycle schedule that optimize the WSNs energy-efficiency. We first propose a feedback algorithm that computes the proper transmission power level between nodes. Then, routing protocol can make use of the transmission power as a metric by choosing route with optimal power consumption to forward packets. Finally, the cross-layer routing information is exploited to form a duty-cycle schedule in MAC layer. EOA is validated on a CROSSBOW’s MicaZ mote platform, and evaluated using the TOSSIM simulator, the simulation results show that EOA is an energy-efficient approach and able to achieve significant performance improvement as well.
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Recent advances in wireless communication technology and research in ad hoc wireless networks have made smart sensing a reality. A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is composed of a number of wireless sensor nodes which form a sensor field and a sink. These large numbers of nodes, having the abilities to sense their surroundings, perform limited computation and communicate wirelessly form the WSNs. Wireless sensor networks have to achieve minimum energy consumption through making use of efficient energy efficient protocols. In this paper, we present a cross layer approach for optimizing data gathering from sensor nodes and in turn increase the lifetime of the network. Cross layer Cluster Approach makes use of both routing and MAC layers information to reduce congestion, increase packet delivery ratio and minimize energy usage. A cluster approach helps in identifying the energy consumption of the node near to the base station and cluster head is selected based on the residual energy of the sensor nodes. This new approach helps in improving the datadelivery ratio for regular traffic and also reduces energy consumption thereby prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor nodes. Through our simulation results, we prove that the performance of the cross layer cluster approach is better than the traditional layer approach.
Extending the Network Lifetime Using Optimized Energy Efficient Cross Layer Module (OEEXLM) in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2009.11005
Abstract: In wireless sensor network, the primary design is to save the energy consumption as much as possible while achieving the given task. Most of recent researches works have only focused on the individual layer issues and ignore the importance of inter working between different layers in a sensor network. In this paper, we use a cross-layer approach to propose an energy-efficient and extending the life time of the sensor network. This protocol which uses routing in the network layer, and the data scheduling in MAC layer. The main ob-jective of this paper is to provide a possible and flexible approach to solve the conflicts between the require-ments of large scale, long life-time, and multi-purpose wireless sensor networks. This OEEXLM module gives better performance compared to all other existing protocols. The performance of OEEXLM module compared with S-MAC and directed diffusion protocol.
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