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Optical Code Generating Device Using 1×N Asymmetric Hollow Waveguide Couplers
Abang Annuar EHSAN,Sahbudin SHAARI,Mohd Kamil ABDRAHMAN,Kee Mohd Rafique KEE ZAINAL ABIDIN,

光子学报 , 2008,
Abstract: An optical code generating device for security access system application is presented. The code generating device constructed using asymmetric hollow optical waveguide coupler design provides a unique series of output light intensities which are successively used as an optical code. The design of the waveguide is made using two major components which are asymmetric Y-junction splitter and a linear taper. Waveguiding is done using a hollow waveguide structure. Construction of higher level 1×N hollow waveguide coupler is done utilizing a basic 1×2 asymmetric waveguide coupler design together with a cascaded design scheme. Non-sequential ray tracing of the asymmetric hollow optical waveguide couplers is performed to predict the optical transmission properties of the waveguide. A representation of the code combination that can be generated from the device is obtained using combinatory number theory.
An Easily Operating Polymer 1×4 Optical Waveguide Switch Matrix Based on Vertical Couplers
Kaixin Chen,Pak L Chu,Hau Ping Chan,Kin S Chiang,

中国物理快报 , 2007,
Abstract: A three-dimensional (3D) polymer thermo-optic (TO) 1×4 waveguide switchmatrix based on vertical couplers is demonstrated. It consists of four basic 3D switch units and because of its 3D structure, its construction is compact, only 9mm in length; moreover, the control logic of the entire switch is very simple, the light signal can be easily switched to any output port by operating only a single switch unit. The finished devices exhibit a switching extinction ratio greater than 21dB for all of four output ports and the crosstalk between twoadjacent output ports is lower than -19dB. The rise time and the fall time of the switch matrix are 0.8ms and 1.4ms, respectively. The required electrical power to initiate the switching function for all switching units is about 50mW.
Nonlinear optical properties of a channel waveguide produced with crosslinkable ferroelectric liquid crystals  [PDF]
Valentina S. U. Fazio,S. T. Lagerwall,V. Zauls,S. Schrader,P. Busson,A. Hult,H. Motschmann
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1007/s101890070016
Abstract: A binary mixture of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) was used for the design of a channel waveguide. The FLCs possess two important functionalities: a chromophore with a high hyperpolarizability $\beta$ and photoreactive groups. The smectic liquid crystal is aligned in layers parallel to the glass plates in a sandwich geometry. This alignment offers several advantages, such as that moderate electric fields are sufficient to achieve a high degree of polar order. The arrangement was then permanently fixed by photopolymerization which yielded a polar network possessing a high thermal and mechanical stability which did not show any sign of degradation within the monitored period of several months. The linear and nonlinear optical properties have been measured and all four independent components of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor $\bar d$ have been determined. The off-resonant $d$-coefficients are remarkably high and comparable to those of the best known inorganic materials. The alignment led to an inherent channel waveguide for p-polarized light without additional preparation steps. The photopolymerization did not induce scattering sites in the waveguide and the normalized losses were less than 2 dB/cm. The material offers a great potential for the design of nonlinear optical devices such as frequency doublers of low power laser diodes.
Phase transition in multimode nonlinear parity-time-symmetric waveguide couplers  [PDF]
Wiktor Walasik,Natalia M. Litchinitser
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Parity-time-symmetric ($\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric) optical waveguide couplers have become a key component for integrated optics. They offer new possibilities for fast, ultracompact, configurable, all-optical signal processing. Here, we study nonlinear properties of finite-size multimode $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric couplers and report a peculiar type of dispersion relation in couplers made of more than one dimer. Moreover, we predict a $\mathcal{PT}$ transition triggered by nonlinearity in these structures, and we demonstrate that with the increase of the number of dimers in the system, the transition threshold decreases and converges to the value corresponding to an infinite array. Finally, we present a variety of periodic intensity patterns that can be formed in these couplers depending on the initial excitation.
Phonon-Polariton Propagation, Guidance, and Control in Bulk and Patterned Thin Film Ferroelectric Crystals  [PDF]
David W. Ward,Eric Statz,Jaime D. Beers,Nikolay Stoyanov,Thomas Feurer,Ryan M. Roth,Richard M. Osgood,Keith A. Nelson
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Using time resolved ultrafast spectroscopy, we have demonstrated that the far infrared (FIR) excitations in ferroelectric crystals may be modified through an arsenal of control techniques from the fields of guided waves, geometrical and Fourier optics, and optical pulse shaping. We show that LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals of 10-250 micron thickness behave as slab waveguides for phonon-polaritons, which are admixtures of electromagnetic waves and lattice vibrations, when the polariton wavelength is on the order of or greater than the crystal thickness. Furthermore, we show that ferroelectric crystals are amenable to processing by ultrafast laser ablation, allowing for milling of user-defined patterns designed for guidance and control of phonon-polariton propagation. We have fabricated several functional structures including THz rectangular waveguides, resonators, splitters/couplers, interferometers, focusing reflectors, and diffractive elements. Electric field enhancement has been obtained with the reflective structures, through spatial shaping, of the optical excitation beam used for phonon-polariton generation, and through temporal pulse shaping to permit repetitive excitation of a phonon-polariton resonant cavity.
Nonlinear parity-time-symmetric transition in finite-size optical couplers  [PDF]
Wiktor Walasik,Chicheng Ma,Natalia M. Litchinitser
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Parity-time-symmetric ($\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric) optical waveguide couplers offer a great potential for future applications in integrated optics. Studies of nonlinear $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric couplers present new possibilities for ultracompact configurable all-optical signal processing. Here, we predict nonlinearly triggered transition from a full to a broken $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric regime in finite-size systems described by smooth permittivity profiles and, in particular, in a conventional discrete waveguide directional coupler configuration with a rectangular permittivity profile. These results suggest a practical route for experimental realization of such systems.
Rectangular Waveguide HOM Couplers for a TESLA Superstructure  [PDF]
A. Blednykh,D. Kostin,V. Kaljuzhny,M. Lalayan,O. Milovanov,A. Ponomarenko,N. Sobenin,A. Sulimov,D. Trubin,A. Zavadzev,M. Dohlus
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Some modifications of a Rectangular Waveguide HOM couplers for TESLA superstructure have been investigated. These RWG HOM couplers are to be installed between the cavities of the superstructure and also at the both ends of it. We investigated a RWG HOM coupler attached to the beam pipe through the slots orientated along beam pipe axis (longitudinal slots), perpendicular to it (azimutal slots) and at some angle to this axis. For dipole modes of both polarizations damping two RWG in every design were used. This paper presents the results obtained for scaled-up setup at 3 GHz at room temperature. The advantages of HOM coupler with longitudinal slots for damping dipole modes and compact HOM coupler with slots at some angle to the axis are shown. Arrangement of HOM coupler in cryostat and heating due to HOM and FM losses are presented. Calculations and design of the feeding RWG coupler for superstructure are also presented.
Characteristics of subluminal for optical resonators

Zhang Jing,Zhang Yun-Dong,Zhang Xue-Nan,Yu Bo,Wang Jin-Fang,Wang Nan,Tian He,Yuan Ping,

物理学报 , 2011,
Abstract: The insertion loss of fiber couplers in the two fiber rings waveguide system is studied. The peak power is the same by matching coupler strength of two couplers at the resonant area. The peak transmittance is inversely proportional to the group refractive index regardless of the two reflection values. Group delay increases at the expense of reduction of the peak transmissivity. The three rings waveguide structure manifests the subluminal properties accompanying normal dispersion by doping gain media. Group delay is analyzed in the frequency domain and the time domain, respectively. This study could be regarded as the significant theoretical foundation for applications in the field of controllable light velocity theory, sensors, filters, optical buffers and so on.
Metal-Based 1×2 and 1×4 Asymmetric Plastic Optical Fiber Couplers for Optical Code Generating Devices
Abang Annuar Ehsan;Sahbudin Shaari;Mohd Kamil Abd-Rahman
PIER , 2010, DOI: 10.2528/PIER09112206
Abstract: An optical code generating device has been developed based on 1×2 and 1×4 asymmetric plastic optical fiber (POF) couplers. The code generating device provides a unique series of output power which are successively used as an optical code in a portable optical access-card system. The system is designed where the asymmetric POF coupler is embedded in an all passive portable unit. This device utilizes a tap-off ratio (TOFR) technique based on a simple variation of the tap width of an asymmetric Y-branch splitter design. A hollow-type waveguide structure is used where it eliminates the use of polymeric material for the waveguide core and allows simple fabrication and assembling of the device. The asymmetric POF coupler has been fabricated on metal-based materials using machining technique. The results for the simulated and fabricated 1×2 asymmetric couplers show the same linear characteristics between the TOFR and the tap width. The simulated devices shows a TOFR variation from 18.6% to 49.9% whereas the TOFR for the fabricated metalbased devices varies from 10.7% up to 47.7%, for a tap width of 500 um to 1 mm. The 1×4 coupler designed using simple cascading of a Y-branch splitter with two 1×2 asymmetric couplers has been fabricated and shows similar characteristics as that of the designed 1×4 devices. The insertion loss for the 1×2 asymmetric coupler at the tap line varies from 9 dB to 16 dB whereas for the bus line, the insertion loss is about 9±0.8 dB. The insertion loss for the 1×4 asymmetric coupler at the output ports varies from 14 dB to 22 dB.
Waveguide-loaded silica fibers for coupling to high-index micro-resonators  [PDF]
Pawel Latawiec,Michael J. Burek,Vivek Venkataraman,Marko Lon?ar
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Tapered silica fibers are often used to rapidly probe the optical properties of micro-resonators. However, their low refractive index precludes phase-matching when coupling to high-index micro-resonators, reducing efficiency. Here we demonstrate efficient optical coupling from tapered fibers to high-index micro-resonators by loading the fibers with an ancillary adiabatic waveguide-coupler fabricated via angled-etching. We demonstrate greatly enhanced coupling to a silicon multimode micro-resonator when compared to coupling via the bare fiber only. Signatures of resonator optical bistability are observed at high powers. This scheme can be applied to resonators of any size and material, increasing the functional scope of fiber coupling.
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