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Splashing onset in dense suspension droplets  [PDF]
Ivo R. Peters,Qin Xu,Heinrich M. Jaeger
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.028301
Abstract: We investigate the impact of droplets of dense suspensions onto a solid substrate. We show that a global hydrodynamic balance is unable to predict the splash onset and propose to replace it by an energy balance at the level of the particles in the suspension. We experimentally verify that the resulting, particle-based Weber number gives a reliable, particle size and density dependent splash onset criterion. We further show that the same argument also explains why in bimodal systems smaller particles are more likely to escape than larger ones.
Dense Correspondences Across Scenes and Scales  [PDF]
Moria Tau,Tal Hassner
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We seek a practical method for establishing dense correspondences between two images with similar content, but possibly different 3D scenes. One of the challenges in designing such a system is the local scale differences of objects appearing in the two images. Previous methods often considered only small subsets of image pixels; matching only pixels for which stable scales may be reliably estimated. More recently, others have considered dense correspondences, but with substantial costs associated with generating, storing and matching scale invariant descriptors. Our work here is motivated by the observation that pixels in the image have contexts -- the pixels around them -- which may be exploited in order to estimate local scales reliably and repeatably. Specifically, we make the following contributions. (i) We show that scales estimated in sparse interest points may be propagated to neighboring pixels where this information cannot be reliably determined. Doing so allows scale invariant descriptors to be extracted anywhere in the image, not just in detected interest points. (ii) We present three different means for propagating this information: using only the scales at detected interest points, using the underlying image information to guide the propagation of this information across each image, separately, and using both images simultaneously. Finally, (iii), we provide extensive results, both qualitative and quantitative, demonstrating that accurate dense correspondences can be obtained even between very different images, with little computational costs beyond those required by existing methods.
Growing length and time scales in a suspension of athermal particles  [PDF]
Takahiro Hatano
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.050301
Abstract: We simulate a relaxation process of non-brownian particles in a sheared viscous medium; the small shear strain is initially applied to a system, which then undergoes relaxation. The relaxation time and the correlation length are estimated as functions of density, which algebraically diverge at the jamming density. This implies that the relaxation time can be scaled by the correlation length using the dynamic critical exponent, which is estimated as 4.6(2). It is also found that shear stress undergoes power-law decay at the jamming density, which is reminiscent of critical slowing down.
Dense Suspension Splat: Monolayer Spreading and Hole Formation After Impact  [PDF]
Luuk A. Lubbers,Qin Xu,Sam Wilken,Wendy W. Zhang,Heinrich M. Jaeger
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.044502
Abstract: We use experiments and minimal numerical models to investigate the rapidly expanding monolayer formed by the impact of a dense suspension drop against a smooth solid surface. The expansion creates a lace-like pattern of particle clusters separated by particle-free regions. Both the expansion and the development of the spatial inhomogeneity are dominated by particle inertia, therefore robust and insensitive to details of the surface wetting, capillarity and viscous drag.
Lateral length scales in exchange bias  [PDF]
Igor V. Roshchin,O. Petracic,R. Morales,Zhi-Pan Li,Xavier Batlle,Ivan K. Schuller
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i2005-10078-2
Abstract: When a ferromagnet is in proximity with an antiferromagnet, lateral length scales such as the respective magnetic domain sizes drastically affect the exchange bias. Bilayers of FeF2 and either Ni, Co or Fe are studied using SQUID and spatially resolved MOKE. When the antiferromagnetic domains are larger than or comparable to the ferromagnetic domains, a local, non-averaging exchange bias is observed. This gives rise to unusual and tunable magnetic hysteresis curves.
Fluid Flows Created by Swimming Bacteria Drive Self-Organization in Confined Suspensions  [PDF]
Enkeleida Lushi,Hugo Wioland,Raymond E Goldstein
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1405698111
Abstract: Concentrated suspensions of swimming microorganisms and other forms of active matter are known to display complex, self-organized spatio-temporal patterns on scales large compared to those of the individual motile units. Despite intensive experimental and theoretical study, it has remained unclear the extent to which the hydrodynamic flows generated by swimming cells, rather than purely steric interactions between them, drive the self-organization. Here we utilize the recent discovery of a spiral-vortex state in confined suspensions of \textit{B. subtilis} to study this issue in detail. Those experiments showed that if the radius of confinement in a thin cylindrical chamber is below a critical value the suspension will spontaneously form a steady single-vortex state encircled by a counter-rotating cell boundary layer, with spiral cell orientation within the vortex. Left unclear, however, was the flagellar orientation, and hence the cell swimming direction, within the spiral vortex. Here, using a fast simulation method that captures oriented cell-cell and cell-fluid interactions in a minimal model of discrete-particle systems, we predict the striking, counterintuitive result that in the presence of collectively-generated fluid motion the cells within the spiral vortex actually swim upstream against those flows. This is then confirmed by new experiments reported here, which include measurements of flagella bundle orientation and cell tracking in the self-organized state. These results highlight the complex interplay between cell orientation and hydrodynamic flows in concentrated suspensions of microorganisms.
Transport relaxation time and length scales in turbulent suspensions  [PDF]
P. Claudin,F. Charru,B. Andreotti
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1017/S0022112010005823
Abstract: We show that in a turbulent flow transporting suspended sediment, the unsaturated sediment flux $q(x,t)$ can be described by a first-order relaxation equation. From a mode analysis of the advection-diffusion equation for the particle concentration, the relaxation length and time scales of the dominant mode are shown to be the deposition length $H U/V_{\rm fall}$ and deposition time $H/V_{\rm fall}$, where $H$ is the flow depth, $U$ the mean flow velocity and $V_{\rm fall}$ the sediment settling velocity. This result is expected to be particularly relevant for the case of sediment transport in slowly varying flows, where the flux is never far from saturation. Predictions are shown to be in quantitative agreement with flume experiments, for both net erosion and net deposition situations.
Effective Confinement as Origin of the Equivalence of Kinetic Temperature and Fluctuation-Dissipation Ratio in a Dense Shear Driven Suspension  [PDF]
Boris Lander,Udo Seifert,Thomas Speck
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.021103
Abstract: We study response and velocity autocorrelation functions for a tagged particle in a shear driven suspension governed by underdamped stochastic dynamics. We follow the idea of an effective confinement in dense suspensions and exploit a time-scale separation between particle reorganization and vibrational motion. This allows us to approximately derive the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in a "hybrid" form involving the kinetic temperature as an effective temperature and an additive correction term. We show numerically that even in a moderately dense suspension the latter is negligible. We discuss similarities and differences with a simple toy model, a single trapped particle in shear flow.
Crystallization in a dense suspension of self-propelled particles  [PDF]
Julian Bialké,Thomas Speck,Hartmut L?wen
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.168301
Abstract: Using Brownian dynamics computer simulations we show that a two-dimensional suspension of self-propelled ("active") colloidal particles crystallizes at sufficiently high densities. Compared to the equilibrium freezing of passive particles the freezing density is both significantly shifted and depends on the structural or dynamical criterion employed. In non-equilibrium the transition is accompanied by pronounced structural heterogeneities. This leads to a transition region between liquid and solid in which the suspension is globally ordered but unordered liquid-like "bubbles" still persist.
Length Scales of Acceleration for Locally Isotropic Turbulence  [PDF]
Reginald J. Hill
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.174501
Abstract: Length scales are determined that govern the behavior at small separations of the correlations of fluid-particle acceleration, viscous force, and pressure gradient. The length scales and an associated universal constant are quantified on the basis of published data. The length scale governing pressure spectra at high wave numbers is discussed. Fluid-particle acceleration correlation is governed by two length scales; one arises from the pressure gradient, the other from the viscous force.
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