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Spatially Resolved Excitation of Rydberg Atoms and Surface Effects on an Atom Chip  [PDF]
Atreju Tauschinsky,Rutger M. T. Thijssen,S. Whitlock,H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell,R. J. C. Spreeuw
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.063411
Abstract: We demonstrate spatially resolved, coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms on an atom chip. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is used to investigate the properties of the Rydberg atoms near the gold coated chip surface. We measure distance dependent shifts (~10 MHz) of the Rydberg energy levels caused by a spatially inhomogeneous electric field. The measured field strength and distance dependence is in agreement with a simple model for the electric field produced by a localized patch of Rb adsorbates deposited on the chip surface during experiments. The EIT resonances remain narrow (< 4 MHz) and the observed widths are independent of atom-surface distance down to ~20 \mum, indicating relatively long lifetime of the Rydberg states. Our results open the way to studies of dipolar physics, collective excitations, quantum metrology and quantum information processing involving interacting Rydberg excited atoms on atom chips.
Manipulation and coherence of ultra-cold atoms on a superconducting atom chip  [PDF]
S. Bernon,H. Hattermann,D. Bothner,M. Knufinke,P. Weiss,F. Jessen,D. Cano,M. Kemmler,R. Kleiner,D. Koelle,J. Fortágh
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3380
Abstract: The coherence of quantum systems is crucial to quantum information processing. While it has been demonstrated that superconducting qubits can process quantum information at microelectronics rates, it remains a challenge to preserve the coherence and therefore the quantum character of the information in these systems. An alternative is to share the tasks between different quantum platforms, e.g. cold atoms storing the quantum information processed by superconducting circuits. In our experiment, we characterize the coherence of superposition states of 87Rb atoms magnetically trapped on a superconducting atom-chip. We load atoms into a persistent-current trap engineered in the vicinity of an off-resonance coplanar resonator, and observe that the coherence of hyperfine ground states is preserved for several seconds. We show that large ensembles of a million of thermal atoms below 350 nK temperature and pure Bose-Einstein condensates with 3.5 x 10^5 atoms can be prepared and manipulated at the superconducting interface. This opens the path towards the rich dynamics of strong collective coupling regimes.
Electric field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms  [PDF]
J. D. Carter,O. Cherry,J. D. D. Martin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.053401
Abstract: The electric fields near the heterogeneous metal/dielectric surface of an atom chip were measured using cold atoms. The atomic sensitivity to electric fields was enhanced by exciting the atoms to Rydberg states that are 10^8 times more polarizable than the ground state. We attribute the measured fields to charging of the insulators between the atom chip wires. Surprisingly, it is observed that these fields may be dramatically lowered with appropriate voltage biasing, suggesting configurations for the future development of hybrid quantum systems.
Magnetic-film atom chip with 10 $μ$m period lattices of microtraps for quantum information science with Rydberg atoms  [PDF]
V. Y. F. Leung,D. R. M. Pijn,H. Schlatter,L. Torralbo-Campo,A. La Rooij,G. B. Mulder,J. Naber,M. L. Soudijn,A. Tauschinsky,C. Abarbanel,B. Hadad,E. Golan,R. Folman,R. J. C. Spreeuw
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4874005
Abstract: We describe the fabrication and construction of a setup for creating lattices of magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms on an atom chip. The lattice is defined by lithographic patterning of a permanent magnetic film. Patterned magnetic-film atom chips enable a large variety of trapping geometries over a wide range of length scales. We demonstrate an atom chip with a lattice constant of 10 $\mu$m, suitable for experiments in quantum information science employing the interaction between atoms in highly-excited Rydberg energy levels. The active trapping region contains lattice regions with square and hexagonal symmetry, with the two regions joined at an interface. A structure of macroscopic wires, cut out of a silver foil, was mounted under the atom chip in order to load ultracold $^{87}$Rb atoms into the microtraps. We demonstrate loading of atoms into the square and hexagonal lattice sections simultaneously and show resolved imaging of individual lattice sites. Magnetic-film lattices on atom chips provide a versatile platform for experiments with ultracold atoms, in particular for quantum information science and quantum simulation.
Detecting Neutral Atoms on an Atom Chip  [PDF]
M. Wilzbach,A. Haase,M. Schwarz,D. Heine,K. Wicker,X. Liu,K. -H. Brenner,S. Groth,Th. Fernholz,B. Hessmo,J. Schmiedmayer
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1002/prop.200610323
Abstract: Detecting single atoms (qubits) is a key requirement for implementing quantum information processing on an atom chip. The detector should ideally be integrated on the chip. Here we present and compare different methods capable of detecting neutral atoms on an atom chip. After a short introduction to fluorescence and absorption detection we discuss cavity enhanced detection of single atoms. In particular we concentrate on optical fiber based detectors such as fiber cavities and tapered fiber dipole traps. We discuss the various constraints in building such detectors in detail along with the current implementations on atom chips. Results from experimental tests of fiber integration are also described. In addition we present a pilot experiment for atom detection using a concentric cavity to verify the required scaling.
Coherent manipulation of Bose-Einstein condensates with state-dependent microwave potentials on an atom chip  [PDF]
Pascal Boehi,Max F. Riedel,Johannes Hoffrogge,Jakob Reichel,Theodor W. Haensch,Philipp Treutlein
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1038/nphys1329
Abstract: Entanglement-based technologies, such as quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and quantum-enhanced metrology, have the potential to revolutionise our way of computing and measuring and help clarifying the puzzling concept of entanglement itself. Ultracold atoms on atom chips are attractive for their implementation, as they provide control over quantum systems in compact, robust, and scalable setups. An important tool in this system is a potential depending on the internal atomic state. Coherent dynamics in this potential combined with collisional interactions allows entanglement generation both for individual atoms and ensembles. Here, we demonstrate coherent manipulation of Bose-condensed atoms in such a potential, generated in a novel way with microwave near-fields on an atom chip. We reversibly entangle atomic internal and motional states, realizing a trapped-atom interferometer with internal-state labelling. Our system provides control over collisions in mesoscopic condensates, paving the way for on-chip generation of many-particle entanglement and quantum-enhanced metrology with spin-squeezed states.
Coherent excitation of a single atom to a Rydberg state  [PDF]
Y. Miroshnychenko,A. Ga?tan,C. Evellin,P. Grangier,D. Comparat,P. Pillet,T. Wilk,A. Browaeys
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.013405
Abstract: We present the coherent excitation of a single Rubidium atom to the Rydberg state (58d3/2) using a two-photon transition. The experimental setup is described in detail, as well as experimental techniques and procedures. The coherence of the excitation is revealed by observing Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states of the atom. We analyze the observed oscillations in detail and compare them to numerical simulations which include imperfections of our experimental system. Strategies for future improvements on the coherent manipulation of a single atom in our settings are given.
An optical lattice on an atom chip  [PDF]
D. Gallego,S. Hofferberth,T. Schumm,P. Krüger,J. Schmiedmayer
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1364/OL.34.003463
Abstract: Optical dipole traps and atom chips are two very powerful tools for the quantum manipulation of neutral atoms. We demonstrate that both methods can be combined by creating an optical lattice potential on an atom chip. A red-detuned laser beam is retro-reflected using the atom chip surface as a high-quality mirror, generating a vertical array of purely optical oblate traps. We load thermal atoms from the chip into the lattice and observe cooling into the two-dimensional regime where the thermal energy is smaller than a quantum of transverse excitation. Using a chip-generated Bose-Einstein condensate, we demonstrate coherent Bloch oscillations in the lattice.
Single-Atom Addressing in Microtraps for Quantum-State Engineering using Rydberg Atoms  [PDF]
Henning Labuhn,Sylvain Ravets,Daniel Barredo,Lucas Béguin,Florence Nogrette,Thierry Lahaye,Antoine Browaeys
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.023415
Abstract: We report on the selective addressing of an individual atom in a pair of single-atom microtraps separated by $3\;\mu$m. Using a tunable light-shift, we render the selected atom off-resonant with a global Rydberg excitation laser which is resonant with the other atom, making it possible to selectively block this atom from being excited to the Rydberg state. Furthermore we demonstrate the controlled manipulation of a two-atom entangled state by using the addressing beam to induce a phase shift onto one component of the wave function of the system, transferring it to a dark state for the Rydberg excitation light. Our results are an important step towards implementing quantum information processing and quantum simulation with large arrays of Rydberg atoms.
A Beam Splitter for Guided Atoms on an Atom Chip  [PDF]
Donatella Cassettari,Bj?rn Hessmo,Ron Folman,Thomas Maier,J?rg Schmiedmayer
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.5483
Abstract: We have designed and experimentally studied a simple beam splitter for atoms guided on an Atom Chip, using a current carrying Y-shaped wire and a bias magnetic field. This beam splitter and other similar designs can be used to build atom optical elements on the mesoscopic scale, and integrate them in matterwave quantum circuits.
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