Abstract:
We review the main neutrino emission mechanisms in neutron star crusts and cores. Among them are the well-known reactions such as the electron-positron annihilation, plasmon decay, neutrino bremsstrahlung of electrons colliding with atomic nuclei in the crust, as well as the Urca processes and neutrino bremsstrahlung in nucleon-nucleon collisions in the core. We emphasize recent theoretical achievements, for instance, band structure effects in neutrino emission due to scattering of electrons in Coulomb crystals of atomic nuclei. We consider the standard composition of matter (neutrons, protons, electrons, muons, hyperons) in the core, and also the case of exotic constituents such as the pion or kaon condensates and quark matter. We discuss the reduction of the neutrino emissivities by nucleon superfluidity, as well as the specific neutrino emission produced by Cooper pairing of the superfluid particles. We also analyze the effects of strong magnetic fields on some reactions, such as the direct Urca process and the neutrino synchrotron emission of electrons. The results are presented in the form convenient for practical use. We illustrate the effects of various neutrino reactions on the cooling of neutron stars. In particular, the neutrino emission in the crust is critical in setting the initial thermal relaxation between the core and the crust. Finally, we discuss the prospects of exploring the properties of supernuclear matter by confronting cooling simulations with observations of the thermal radiation from isolated neutron stars.

Abstract:
In the present study we investigate the static properties of nuclei in the inner crust of neutron stars. Using the Hartree-Fock method in coordinate space, together with the semiclassical approximation, we examine the patterns of phase transitions.

Abstract:
Within a microscopic approach the structure of Neutron Stars is usually studied by modelling the homogeneous nuclear matter of the core by a suitable Equation of State, based on a many-body theory, and the crust by a functional based on a more phenomenological approach. We present the first calculation of Neutron Star overall structure by adopting for the core an Equation of State derived from the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory and for the crust, including the pasta phase, an Energy Density Functional based on the same Equation of State, and which is able to describe accurately the binding energy of nuclei throughout the mass table. Comparison with other approaches is discussed. The relevance of the crust Equation of state for the Neutron Star radius is particularly emphasised.

Abstract:
We develop new hyperon equation of state (EoS) tables for core-collapse supernova simulations and neutron stars. These EoS tables are based on a density-dependent relativistic hadron field theory where baryon-baryon interaction is mediated by mesons, using the parameter set DD2 from Typel et al. (2010) for nucleons. Furthermore, light and heavy nuclei along with the interacting nucleons are treated in the nuclear statistical equilibrium model of Hempel and Schaffner-Bielich which includes excluded volume effects. Of all possible hyperons, we consider only the contribution of $\Lambda$s. We have developed two variants of hyperonic EoS tables: in the np$\Lambda \phi$ case the repulsive hyperon-hyperon interaction mediated by the strange $\phi$ meson is taken into account, and in the np$\Lambda$ case it is not. The EoS tables for the two cases encompass wide range of density ($10^{-12}$ to $\sim$ 1 fm$^{-3}$), temperature (0.1 to 158.48 MeV), and proton fraction (0.01 to 0.60). The effects of $\Lambda$ hyperons on thermodynamic quantities such as free energy per baryon, pressure, or entropy per baryon are investigated and found to be significant at high densities. The cold, $\beta$-equilibrated EoS (with the crust included self-consistently) results in a 2.1 M$_{\odot}$ maximum mass neutron star for the np$\Lambda \phi$ case, whereas that for the np$\Lambda$ case is 1.95 M$_{\odot}$. The np$\Lambda \phi$ EoS represents the first supernova EoS table involving hyperons that is directly compatible with the recently measured 2 M$_{\odot}$ neutron stars.

Abstract:
In the inner crust of a neutron star, due to the high density and pressure, nuclei which are still present, are immersed in a neutron superfluid. One then expects that the dynamical properties of nuclei are significantly affected. In order to estimate the magnitude of the effect associated with the presence of a superfluid medium, we formulate the hydrodynamical approach to the nuclear dynamics in the inner crust of neutron stars. We calculate the renormalized nuclear mass and the strength of the medium-induced interaction between nuclei. We argue that these effects noticeably modify the properties of the Coulomb crystal in the inner crust.

Abstract:
It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus' field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star's birth.

Abstract:
We study the influence of core-\textit{crust} transition pressure changes on the general dynamical properties of neutron star configurations. First we study the matching conditions in core-\textit{crust} transition pressure region, where phase transitions in the equation of state causes energy density jumps. Then using a surface \textit{crust} approximation, we can construct configurations where the matter is described by the equation of state of the core of the star and the core-\textit{crust} transition pressure. We will consider neutron stars in the slow rotation limit, considering perturbation theory up to second order in the angular velocity so that the deformation of the star is also taken into account. The junction determines the parameters of the star such as total mass, angular and quadrupolar momentum.

Abstract:
We consider the expulsion of the magnetic field from the super-conducting core of a neutron star and its subsequent decay in the crust. Particular attention is paid to a strong feedback of the distortion of magnetic field lines in the crust on the expulsion of the flux from the core. This causes a considerable delay of the core flux expulsion if the initial field strength is larger than 10^{11} G. It is shown that the hypothesis on the magnetic field expulsion induced by the neutron star spin-down is adequate only for a relatively weak initial magnetic field $B \approx 10^{11}$ G. The expulsion time-scale depends not only on the conductivity of the crust, but also on the initial magnetic field strength itself. Our model of the field evolution naturally explains the existence of the residual magnetic field of neutron stars. Its strength is correlated with the impurity concentration in neutron star crusts and anti-correlated with the initial field strengths.

Abstract:
We develop an effective model for a neutron star with a magnetosphere. It takes into account the electromagnetic torques acting on the magnetic dipole, the friction forces between the crust and the core, and the gravitational corrections. Anomalous electromagnetic torques, usually neglected in a rigid star model, play here a crucial role for the alignement of the magnetic dipole. The crust-core coupling time implied by the model is consistent with the observational data and other theoretical estimations. This model describes the main features of the behavior of the magnetic dipole during the life of the star, and in particular gives a natural explanation for the n<3 value of the breaking index in a young neutron star.

Abstract:
A fully self-consistent model of the neutron star inner crust based upon models of the nucleonic equation of state at zero temperature is constructed. The results nearly match those of previous calculations of the inner crust given the same input equation of state. The extent to which the uncertainties in the symmetry energy, the compressibility, and the equation of state of low-density neutron matter affect the composition of the crust are examined. The composition and pressure of the crust is sensitive to the description of low-density neutron matter and the nuclear symmetry energy, and the latter dependence is non-monotonic, giving larger nuclei for moderate symmetry energies and smaller nuclei for more extreme symmetry energies. Future nuclear experiments may help constrain the crust and future astrophysical observations may constrain the nuclear physics input.