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 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/757/2/139 Abstract: We present one of the most ultraviolet (UV) luminous Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) (J1432+3358) at z=2.78, discovered in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) Bootes field. The R-band magnitude of J1432+3358 is 22.29 AB, more than two magnitudes brighter than typical L* LBGs at this redshift. The deep z-band image reveals two components of J1432+3358 separated by 1.0" with flux ratio of 3:1. The high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) rest-frame UV spectrum shows Lya emission line and interstellar medium absorption lines. The absence of NV and CIV emission lines, the non-detection in X-ray and radio wavelengths and mid-infrared (MIR) colors indicate no or weak active galactic nuclei (AGN) (<10%) in this galaxy. The galaxy shows broader line profile with the full width half maximum (FWHM) of about 1000 km/s and larger outflow velocity (~500 km/s) than those of typical z~3 LBGs. The physical properties are derived by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar synthesis models. The dust extinction, E(B-V)=0.12, is similar to that in normal LBGs. The star formation rates (SFRs) derived from the SED fitting and the dust-corrected UV flux are consistent with each other, ~300 Msun/yr, and the stellar mass is 1.3e11 Msun. The SFR and stellar mass in J1432+3358 are about an order of magnitude higher than those in normal LBGs. The SED-fitting results support that J1432+3358 has a continuous star formation history with the star formation episode of 630 Myr. The morphology of J1432+3358 and its physical properties suggest that J1432+3358 is in an early phase of 3:1 merger process. The unique properties and the low space number density (~1e-7 Mpc^{-3})are consistent with the interpretation that such galaxies are either found in a short unobscured phase of the star formation or that small fraction of intensive star-forming galaxies are unobscured.
 Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/373922 Abstract: We present the results of a systematic study of the rest-frame UV spectroscopic properties of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). The database of almost 1000 LBG spectra proves useful for constructing high S/N composite spectra. The composite spectrum of the entire sample reveals a wealth of features attributable to hot stars, HII regions, dust, and outflowing neutral and ionized gas. By grouping the database according to galaxy parameters such as Lyman-alpha equivalent width, UV spectral slope, and interstellar kinematics, we isolate some of the major trends in LBG spectra which are least compromised by selection effects. We find that LBGs with stronger Lyman-alpha emission have bluer UV continua, weaker low-ionization interstellar absorption lines, smaller kinematic offsets between Lyman-alpha and the interstellar absorption lines, and lower star-formation rates. There is a decoupling between the dependence of low- and high-ionization outflow features on other spectral properties. Most of the above trends can be explained in terms of the properties of the large-scale outflows seen in LBGs. According to this scenario, the appearance of LBG spectra is determined by a combination of the covering fraction of outflowing neutral gas which contains dust, and the range of velocities over which this gas is absorbing. Higher sensitivity and spectral resolution observations are still required for a full understanding of the covering fraction and velocity dispersion of the outflowing neutral gas in LBGs, and its relationship to the escape fraction of Lyman continuum radiation in galaxies at z~3.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201321654 Abstract: Aims. We present a deep multiwavelength imaging survey (UGR) in 3 different fields, Q0933, Q1623, and COSMOS, for a total area of ~1500arcmin^2. The data were obtained with the Large Binocular Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope. Methods. To select our Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates, we adopted the well established and widely used color-selection criterion (U-G vs. G-R). One of the main advantages of our survey is that it has a wider dynamic color range for U-dropout selection than in previous studies. This allows us to fully exploit the depth of our R-band images, obtaining a robust sample with few interlopers. In addition, for 2 of our fields we have spectroscopic redshift information that is needed to better estimate the completeness of our sample and interloper fraction. Results. Our limiting magnitudes reach 27.0(AB) in the R band (5\sigma) and 28.6(AB) in the U band (1\sigma). This dataset was used to derive LBG candidates at z~3. We obtained a catalog with a total of 12264 sources down to the 50% completeness magnitude limit in the R band for each field. We find a surface density of ~3 LBG candidates arcmin^2 down to R=25.5, where completeness is >=95% for all 3 fields. This number is higher than the original studies, but consistent with more recent samples.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/704/1/117 Abstract: We present results of optical spectroscopic observations of candidates of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at $z \sim 5$ in the region including the GOODS-N and the J0053+1234 region by using GMOS-N and GMOS-S, respectively. Among 25 candidates, five objects are identified to be at $z \sim 5$ (two of them were already identified by an earlier study) and one object very close to the color-selection window turned out to be a foreground galaxy. With this spectroscopically identified sample and those from previous studies, we derived the lower limits on the number density of bright ($M_{UV}<-22.0$ mag) LBGs at $z \sim 5$. These lower limits are comparable to or slightly smaller than the number densities of UV luminosity functions (UVLFs) that show the smaller number density among $z \sim 5$ UVLFs in literature. However, by considering that there remain many LBG candidates without spectroscopic observations, the number density of bright LBGs is expected to increase by a factor of two or more. The evidence for the deficiency of UV luminous LBGs with large Ly$\alpha$ equivalent widths was reinforced. We discuss possible causes for the deficiency and prefer the interpretation of dust absorption.
 Physics , 2001, Abstract: We present the results of detailed studies of the astrophysical conditions in z~3 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), placing particular emphasis on what is learned from LBG rest frame UV spectra. By drawing from our database of ~1000 spectra, and constructing higher S/N composite spectra from galaxies grouped according to properties such as luminosity, extinction, morphology, and environment, we can show how the rest-frame UV spectroscopic properties systematically depend on other galaxy properties. Such information is crucial to understanding the detailed nature of LBGs, and their impact on the surrounding IGM.
 Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/321403 Abstract: We present the first results of a spectroscopic survey of Lyman break galaxies in the near-infrared aimed at detecting the emission lines of [O II], [O III], and Hbeta from the H II regions of star forming galaxies at z = 3. From observations of 19 objects with the Keck and VLT telescopes, we reach the following main conclusions. Contrary to expectations, the star formation rates deduced from the Hbeta luminosity are on average no larger than those implied by the stellar continuum at 1500 A; presumably any differential extinction between rest-frame optical and UV is small compared with the relative uncertainties in the calibrations of these two star formation tracers. For the galaxies in our sample, the abundance of O can only be determined to within one order of magnitude. Even so, it seems well established that LBGs are the most metal-enriched structures at z = 3, apart from QSOs, with abundances greater than about 1/10 solar. They are also significantly overluminous for their metallicities; this is probably an indication that their mass-to-light ratios are small compared with present-day galaxies. At face value their velocity dispersions, sigma = 50 - 115 km/s imply virial masses of about 10^{10} solar masses within half-light radii of 2.5 kpc. However, we are unable to establish if the widths of the emission lines do reflect the motions of the H II regions within the gravitational potential of the galaxies, even though in two cases we see hints of rotation curves. All 19 LBGs observed show evidence for galactic-scale superwinds; such outflows are important for regulating star formation, distributing metals over large volumes, and allowing Lyman continuum photons to escape and ionize the IGM.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19713.x Abstract: Young, massive stars dominate the rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies. At high redshifts (z>2), these rest-UV features are shifted into the observed-frame optical and a combination of gravitational lensing, deep spectroscopy and spectral stacking analysis allows the stellar population characteristics of these sources to be investigated. We use our stellar population synthesis code BPASS to fit two strong rest-UV spectral features in published Lyman-break galaxy spectra, taking into account the effects of binary evolution on the stellar spectrum. In particular, we consider the effects of quasi-homogeneous evolution (arising from the rotational mixing of rapidly-rotating stars), metallicity and the relative abundance of carbon and oxygen on the observed strengths of HeII (1640 Angstroms) and CIV (1548,1551 Angstroms) spectral lines. We find that Lyman-break galaxy spectra at z=2-3 are best fit with moderately sub-solar metallicities, and with a depleted carbon-to-oxygen ratio. We also find that the spectra of the lowest metallicity sources are best fit with model spectra in which the HeII emission line is boosted by the inclusion of the effect of massive stars being spun-up during binary mass-transfer so these rapidly-rotating stars experiencing quasi-homogeneous evolution.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/771/1/L6 Abstract: We present deep spectroscopic observations of a Lyman-alpha emitter (LAE) candidate at z ~ 7.7 using the infrared spectrograph LUCI on the 2 x 8.4m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The candidate is the brightest among the four z ~ 7.7 LAE candidates found in a narrow-band imaging survey by Krug et al. 2012. Our spectroscopic data include a total of 7.5 hours of integration with LBT/LUCI and are deep enough to significantly (3.2-4.9 sigma) detect the Lyman-alpha emission line of this candidate, based on its Lyman-alpha flux 1.2 x 10^{-17} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} estimated from the narrow-band photometry. However, we do not find any convincing signal at the expected position of its Lyman-alpha emission line, suggesting that this source is not an LAE at z ~ 7.7. The non-detection in this work, together with the previous studies of z ~ 7.7 LAEs, puts a strong constraint on the bright-end Lyman-alpha luminosity function (LF) at z ~ 7.7. We find a rapid evolution of the Lyman-alpha LF from z ~ 6.5 to 7.7: the upper limit of the z ~ 7.7 LF is more than 5 times lower than the z ~ 6.5 LF at the bright end (f > 1.0 x 10^{-17} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2}, or L > 6.9 x 10^{42} erg s^{-1}). This is likely caused by an increasing neutral fraction in the IGM that substantially attenuates Lyman-alpha emission at z ~ 7.7.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02289.x Abstract: The number density and clustering properties of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) are consistent with them being the central galaxies of the most massive dark halos present at z~3. This conclusion holds in all currently popular hierarchical models for structure formation, and is almost independent of the global cosmological parameters. We examine whether the sizes, luminosities, kinematics and star-formation rates of LBGs are also consistent with this identification. Simple formation models tuned to give good fits to low redshift galaxies can predict the distribution of these quantities in the LBG population. The LBGs should be small (with typical half-light radii of 0.6-2 kpc/h), should inhabit haloes of moderately high circular velocity (180-290 km/s) but have low stellar velocity dispersions (70-120 km/s) and should have substantial star formation rates (15-100 Msun/yr). The numbers here refer to the predicted median values in the LBG sample of Adelberger et al. (1998); the first assumes an Omega=1 universe and the second a flat universe with Omega=0.3. For either cosmology these predictions are consistent with the current (rather limited) observational data. Following the work of Kennicutt (1998) we assume stars to form more rapidly in gas of higher surface density. This predicts that LBG samples should preferentially contain objects with low angular momentum, and so small size, for their mass. In contrast, samples of damped Lyman alpha systems (DLSs), should be biased towards objects with large angular momentum. Bright LBGs and DLSs may therefore form distinct populations, with very different sizes and star formation rates, LBGs being smaller and more metal-rich than DLSs of similar mass and redshift.
 Physics , 2001, Abstract: Data on galaxies at high redshift, identified by the Lyman-break photometric technique, can teach us about how galaxies form and evolve. The stellar masses and other properties of such Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) depend sensitively on the details of star formation. In this paper we consider three different star formation prescriptions, and use semi-analytic methods applied to the now-standard $\Lambda$CDM theory of hierarchical structure formation to show how these assumptions about star formation affect the predicted masses of the stars in these galaxies and the masses of the dark matter halos that host them. We find that, within the rather large uncertainties, recent estimates of the stellar masses of LBGs from multi-color photometry are consistent with the predictions of all three models. However, the estimated stellar masses are more consistent with the predictions of two of the models in which star formation is accelerated at high redshifts $z\gsim3$, and of these models the one in which many of the LBGs are merger-driven starbursts is also more consistent with indications that many high redshift galaxies are gas rich. The clustering properties of LBGs have put some constraints on the masses of their host halos, but due to similarities in the halo occupation of the three models we consider and degeneracies between model parameters, current constraints are not yet sufficient to distinguish between realistic models.
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