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 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0031-8949/2015/T165/014019 Abstract: The rich phase diagram of quantum spin-ladder systems has attracted much attention in the theoretical literature. The progress in experimental realisations of this fascinating physics however has been much slower. While materials with a ladder-like structure exist, one always has coupling between the ladders to muddy the waters. In addition, such materials exhibit limited (if any) tunability in terms of the magnetic exchange parameters, and experimental probing of the different phases is a great challenge. In this work, we show that a realisation of spin-ladder physics can occur in an engineered nanostructure made out of bilayer graphene in the zero-filling quantum Hall state. Specifically, we describe a split-double-gated setup in which a domain wall is explicitly induced in the middle of the sample, and show that an effective spin-ladder forms along this domain wall. The interaction strengths of the ladder are tunable by adjusting magnetic and electric fields as well as the spacing between the gates. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the effective spin ladder has a helical nature, meaning that the spin-correlations may be probed rather simply with charge transport experiments. We describe the phase diagram of this system, and show that certain transport measurements are very sensitive to the phase.
 Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.106401 Abstract: The edge states of the recently proposed quantum spin Hall systems constitute a new symmetry class of one-dimensional liquids dubbed the helical liquid'', where the spin orientation is determined by the direction of electron motion. We prove a no-go theorem which states that a helical liquid with an odd number of components cannot be constructed in a purely 1D lattice system. In a helical liquid with an odd number of components, a uniform gap in the ground state can appear when the time-reversal (TR) symmetry is spontaneously broken by interactions. On the other hand, a correlated two-particle backscattering term by an impurity can become relevant while keeping the TR invariance. The Kondo effect in such a liquid exhibits new features in the structure of the screening cloud.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3380849 Abstract: We present the microscopic treatment of edge magnetoplasmons (EMPs) for the regime of not-too-low temperatures defined by the condition $\hbar \omega_{c}\gg k_{B}T\gg \hbar v_{g}/2\ell_{0}$, where $v_{g}$ is the group velocity of the edge states, $\ell_{0}=\sqrt{\hbar /m^{\ast}\omega_{c}}$ is the magnetic length and $\omega_{c}$ is the cyclotron frequency. We find a weakly damped symmetric mode, named helical edge magnetoplasmon, which is localized at the edge states region for filling factors $\nu =1, 2$ and \textit{very strong dissipation} $\eta_{T}=\xi /k_{x}\ell_{T}\agt\ln (1/k_{x}\ell_{T})\gg 1$, where the characteristic length $\ell_{T}=k_{B}T\ell_{0}^{2}/\hbar v_{g}\gg \ell_{0}/2$ with $\xi$ being the ratio of the local transverse conductivity to the local Hall conductivity at the edge states and $k_{x}$ is the wave vector along the edge; here other EMP modes are strongly damped. The spatial structure of the helical edge magnetoplasmon, transverse to the edge, is strongly modified as the wave propagates along the edge. In the regime of \textit{weak dissipation}, $\eta_{T}\ll 1$, we obtain exactly the damping of the fundamental mode as a function of $k_{x}$. For $\nu=4$ and weak dissipation we find that the fundamental modes of $n=0$ and $n=1$ Landau levels (LLs) are strongly renormalized due to the Coulomb coupling. Renormalization of all these EMPs coming from a metal gate and air half-space is studied.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.166403 Abstract: We study theoretically the two interacting one-dimensional helical modes at the edges of the quantum spin Hall systems. A new type of inter-edge correlated liquid (IECL) without the spin gap is found. This liquid shows the diverging density wave (DW) and superconductivity (SC) correlations much stronger than those of the spinfull electrons. Possible experimental observations are also discussed.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.256803 Abstract: Following the recent observation of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect in HgTe quantum wells, an important issue is to understand the effect of impurities on transport in the QSH regime. Using linear response and renormalization group methods, we calculate the edge conductance of a QSH insulator as a function of temperature in the presence of a magnetic impurity. At high temperatures, Kondo and/or two-particle scattering give rise to a logarithmic temperature dependence. At low temperatures, for weak Coulomb interactions in the edge liquid the conductance is restored to unitarity with unusual power-laws characteristic of a `local helical liquid', while for strong interactions transport proceeds by weak tunneling through the impurity where only half an electron charge is transferred in each tunneling event.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: The conductance of graphene subject to a strong, tilted magnetic field exhibits a dramatic change from insulating to conducting behavior with tilt-angle, regarded as evidence for the transition from a canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) to a ferromagnetic (FM) \nu=0 quantum Hall state. We develop a theory for the electric transport in this system based on the spin-charge connection, whereby the evolution in the nature of collective spin excitations is reflected in the charge-carrying modes. To this end, we derive an effective field theoretical description of the low-energy excitations, associated with quantum fluctuations of the spin-valley domain wall ground-state configuration which characterizes the two-dimensional (2D) system with an edge. This analysis yields a model describing a one-dimensional charged edge mode coupled to charge-neutral spin-wave excitations in the 2D bulk. Focusing particularly on the FM phase, naively expected to exhibit perfect conductance, we study a mechanism whereby the coupling to these bulk excitations assists in generating back-scattering. Our theory yields the conductance as a function of temperature and the Zeeman energy - the parameter that tunes the transition between the FM and CAF phases - with behavior in qualitative agreement with experiment.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.80.241302 Abstract: We study the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction mediated by helical edge states in quantum spin hall system. The helical edge states induce an in-plane noncollinear exchange coupling between two local spins, in contrast to the isotropic coupling induced in normal metal. The angle between the two local spins in the ground state depends on the Fermi level. This property may be used to control the angle of spins by tuning the electric gate.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.205403 Abstract: We study the dynamics of a quantum spin Hall edge coupled to a magnet with its own dynamics. Using spin transfer torque principles, we analyze the interplay between spin currents in the edge state and dynamics of the axis of the magnet, and draw parallels with circuit analogies. As a highlighting feature, we show that while coupling to a magnet typically renders the edge state insulating by opening a gap, in the presence of a small potential bias, spin-transfer torque can restore perfect conductance by transferring angular momentum to the magnet. In the presence of interactions within the edge state, we employ a Luttinger liquid treatment to show that the edge, when subject to a small voltage bias, tends to form a unique dynamic rotating spin wave state that naturally couples into the dynamics of the magnet. We briefly discuss realistic physical parameters and constraints for observing this interplay between quantum spin Hall and spin-transfer torque physics.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.121411 Abstract: We consider the zero-filled quantum-Hall ferromagnetic state of bilayer graphene subject to a kink-like perpendicular electric field, which generates domain walls in the electronic state and low-energy collective modes confined to move along them. In particular, it is shown that two pairs of collective helical modes are formed at opposite sides of the kink, each pair consisting of modes with identical helicities. We derive an effective field-theoretical model of these modes in terms of two weakly coupled anisotropic quantum spin-ladders, with parameters tunable through control of the electric and magnetic fields. This yields a rich phase diagram, where due to the helical nature of the modes, distinct phases possess very different charge conduction properties. Most notably, this system can potentially exhibit a transition from a superfluid to an insulating phase.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: In the quantum anomalous Hall effect, chiral edge modes are expected to conduct spin polarized current without dissipation and thus hold great promise for future electronics and spintronics with low energy consumption. However, spin polarization of chiral edge modes has never been established in experiments. In this work, we theoretically study spin polarization of chiral edge modes in the quantum anomalous Hall effect, based on both the effective model and more realistic tight-binding model constructed from the first principles calculations. We find that spin polarization can be manipulated by tuning either a local gate voltage or the Fermi energy. We also propose to extract spin information of chiral edge modes by contacting the quantum anomalous Hall insulator to a ferromagnetic (FM) lead. The establishment of spin polarization of chiral edge modes, as well as the manipulation and detection in a fully electrical manner, will pave the way to the applications of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in spintronics.
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