Abstract:
We investigate magnetic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas with population imbalance. In the presence of population imbalance, the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink (which is frequently referred to as the NSR theory, or Gaussian fluctuation theory) is known to give unphysical results in the BCS-BEC crossover region. We point out that this problem comes from how to treat pseudogap effects originating from pairing fluctuations and many-body corrections to the spin susceptibility. We also clarify how to overcome this problem by including higher order fluctuations beyond the ordinary T-matrix theory. Calculated spin susceptibility based on our extended T-matrix theory agrees well with the recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas.

Abstract:
We investigate the superfluid phase transition and effects of mass imbalance in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an cold Fermi gas. We point out that the Gaussian fluctuation theory developed by Nozi\`eres and Schmitt-Rink and the $T$-matrix theory, that are now widely used to study strong-coupling physics of cold Fermi gases, give unphysical results in the presence of mass imbalance. To overcome this problem, we extend the $T$-matrix theory to include higher-order pairing fluctuations. Using this, we examine how the mass imbalance affects the superfluid phase transition. Since the mass imbalance is an important key in various Fermi superfluids, such as $^{40}$K-$^6$Li Fermi gas mixture, exciton condensate, and color superconductivity in a dense quark matter, our results would be useful for the study of these recently developing superfluid systems.

Abstract:
We investigate magnetic properties and strong coupling corrections in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Within the framework of an extended $T$-matrix theory, we calculate the spin susceptibility $\chi$ above the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$. In the crossover region, the formation of preformed Cooper pairs is shown to cause a non-monotonic temperature dependence of $\chi$, which is similar to the so-called spin-gap phenomenon observed in the under-doped regime of high-$T_{c}$ cuprates. From this behavior of $\chi$, we determine the spin-gap temperature as the temperature at which $\chi$ takes a maximum value, in the BCS-BEC crossover region. Since the spin susceptibility is sensitive to the formation of singlet Cooper pairs, our results would be useful in considering the temperature region where pairing fluctuations are important in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas.

Abstract:
We investigate strong-coupling corrections to the specific heat $C_V$ in the normal state of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region. A recent experiment on a $^6$Li unitary Fermi gas [M. J. H. Ku, {\it et. al.}, Science {\bf 335}, 563 (2012)] shows that $C_V$ is remarkably amplified near the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$, being similar to the well-known $\lambda$-structure observed in liquid $^4$He. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozi\`eres and Schmitt-Rink, we show that strong pairing fluctuations are sufficient to explain the anomalous behavior of $C_V$ observed in a $^6$Li unitary Fermi gas near $T_{\rm c}$. We also show that there is no contribution from {\it stable} preformed Cooper pairs to $C_V$ at the unitarity. This indicates that the origin of the observed anomaly is fundamentally different from the case of liquid $^{4}$He, where {\it stable} $^4$He Bose atoms induce the $\lambda$-structure in $C_V$ near the superfluid instability. Instead, the origin is the suppression of the entropy $S$, near $T_{\rm c}$, due to the increase of {\it metastable} preformed Cooper pairs. Our results indicate that the specific heat is a useful quantity to study the effects of pairing fluctuations on the thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.

Abstract:
We investigate the superfluid phase transition and single-particle excitations in the BCS (Bareen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas with mass imbalance. In our recent paper [R. Hanai, et. al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 053621 (2013)], we showed that an extended $T$-matrix approximation (ETMA) can overcome the serious problem known in the ordinary (non-self-consistent) $T$-matrix approximation that it unphysically gives double-valued superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$ in the presence of mass imbalance. However, at the same time, the ETMA was also found to give the vanishing $T_{\rm c}$ in the weak-coupling and highly mass-imbalanced case. In this paper, we inspect the correctness of this ETMA result, using the self-consistent $T$-matrix approximation (SCTMA). We show that the vanishing $T_{\rm c}$ is an artifact of the ETMA, coming from an internal inconsistency of this theory. The superfluid phase transition actually always occurs, irrespective of the ratio of mass imbalance. We also apply the SCTMA to the pseudogap problem in a mass-imbalanced Fermi gas. We show that pairing fluctuations induce different pseudogap phenomena between the the light component and heavy component. We also point out that a $^6$Li-$^{40}$K mixture is a useful system for the realization of a hetero pairing state, as well as for the study of component-dependent pseudogap phenomena.

Abstract:
We present detailed numerical and analytical investigations of the nonequilibrium dynamics of spin-polarized ultracold Fermi gases following a sudden switching-on of the atom-atom pairing coupling strength. Within a time-dependent mean-field approach we show that on increasing the imbalance it takes longer for pairing to develop, the period of the nonlinear oscillations lengthens, and the maximum value of the pairing amplitude decreases. As expected, dynamical pairing is suppressed by the increase of the imbalance. Eventually, for a critical value of the imbalance the nonlinear oscillations do not even develop. Finally, we point out an interesting temperature-reentrant behavior of the exponent characterizing the initial instability.

Abstract:
We investigate strong-coupling corrections to single-particle excitations in the normal state of a spin-polarized unitary Fermi gas. Within the framework of an extended T-matrix approximation, we calculate the single-particle density of states, as well as the single-particle spectral weight, to show that the so-called pseudogap phenomenon gradually disappears with increasing the magnitude of an effective magnetic field. In the highly spin-polarized regime, the calculated spin-polarization rate as a function of the effective magnetic field agrees well with the recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas. Although this experiment has been considered to be incompatible with the existence of the pseudogap in an unpolarized Fermi gas, our result clarifies that the observed spin-polarization rate in the highly spin-polarized regime and the pseudogap in the unpolarized limit can be explained in a consistent manner, when one correctly includes effects of population imbalance on single-particle excitations. Since it is a crucial issue to clarify whether the pseudogap exists or not in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas, our results would be useful for the understanding of this strongly interacting fermion system.

Abstract:
Physical properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the temperature-coupling phase diagram can be characterized by the contact intensity C, which enters the pair-correlation function at short distances and describes how the two-body problem merges into its surrounding. We show that the local order established by pairing fluctuations about the critical temperature Tc of the superfluid transition considerably enhances the contact C in a temperature range where pseudogap phenomena are maximal. Our ab initio results for C in a trap compare well with recently available experimental data over a wide coupling range. An analysis is also provided for the effects of trap averaging on C.

Abstract:
We study the dissociation of Feshbach molecules in ultracold Fermi gases with spin-orbit (SO) coupling. Since SO coupling can induce quantum transition between the Feshbach molecules and the fully polarized Fermi gas, the Feshbach molecules can be dissociated by the SO coupling. We experimentally realized this new type of dissociation in ultracold gases of 40K atoms with SO coupling created by Raman beams, and observed that the dissociation rate is highly non-monotonic on both the positive and negative Raman-detuning sides. Our results show that the dissociation of Feshbach molecules can be controlled by new degrees of freedoms, i.e., the SO-coupling intensity or the momenta of the Raman beams, as well as the detuning of the Raman beams.

Abstract:
We investigate single-particle properties of a mass-imbalanced Fermi gas in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover region. In the presence of mass imbalance, we point out that the ordinary $T$-matrix approximation, which has been extensively used to clarify various BCS-BEC crossover physics in the mass-balanced case, unphysically gives a double-valued solution in terms of the superfluid phase transition temperature $T_{\rm c}$ in the crossover region. To overcome this serious problem, we include higher order strong-coupling corrections beyond the $T$-matrix level. Using this extended $T$-matrix theory, we calculate single-particle excitations in the normal state above $T_{\rm c}$. The so-called pseudogap phenomena originating from pairing fluctuations are shown to be different between the light mass component and heavy mass component, which becomes more remarkable at higher temperatures. Since Fermi condensates with hetero-Cooper pairs have recently been discussed in various fields, such as exciton (polariton) condensates, as well as color superconductivity, our results would be useful for the further development of Fermi superfluid physics, beyond the conventional superfluid state with homo-Cooper pairs.