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Compact Remnant Mass Function: Dependence on the Explosion Mechanism and Metallicity  [PDF]
C. L. Fryer,K. Belczynski,G. Wiktorowicz,M. Dominik,V. Kalogera,D. Holz
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/749/1/91
Abstract: The mass distribution of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes provides vital clues into the nature of stellar core collapse and the physical engine responsible for supernova explosions. Using recent advances in our understanding of supernova engines, we derive mass distributions of stellar compact remnants. We provide analytical prescriptions for compact object masses for major population synthesis codes. In an accompanying paper, Belczynski et al., we demonstrate that these qualitatively new results for compact objects can explain the observed gap in the remnant mass distribution between ~2-5 solar masses and that they place strong constraints on the nature of the supernova engine. Here, we show that advanced gravitational radiation detectors (like LIGO/VIRGO or the Einstein Telescope) will be able to further test the supernova explosion engine models once double black hole inspirals are detected.
Evidence for a binary origin of a central compact object  [PDF]
Victor Doroshenko,Gerd Puehlhofer,Patrick Kavanagh,Andrea Santangelo,Valery Suleimanov,Dmitry Klochkov
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Central compact objects are thought to be young thermally emitting isolated neutron stars that were born during the preceding core-collapse supernova explosion. Here we present the first evidence that at least in one case the neutron star must have formed within a binary system. The former stellar companion, surrounded by a dust shell with an estimated mass of $\sim0.4-1.5M_\odot$ , is going through the final stages of its own evolution as a post-asymptotic giant branch star. We argue that accretion of matter supplied by the companion soon after the supernova explosion is likely responsible for dampening of the magnetic field of the central compact object to its presently low value.
The explosion of supernova 2011fe in the frame of the core-degenerate scenario  [PDF]
Noam Soker,Enrique Garcia-Berro,Leandro G. Althaus
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slt142
Abstract: We argue that the properties of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2011fe can be best explained within the frame of the core-degenerate (CD) scenario. In the CD scenario a white dwarf (WD) merges with the core of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star and forms a rapidly rotating WD, with a mass close to and above the critical mass for explosion. Rapid rotation prevents immediate collapse and/or explosion. Spinning down over a time of 0-10 Gyr brings the WD to explosion. A very long delayed explosion to post-crystallization phase, which lasts for about 2 Gyr leads to the formation of a highly carbon-enriched outer layer. This can account for the carbon-rich composition of the fastest-moving ejecta of SN 2011fe. In reaching the conclusion that the CD scenario best explains the observed properties of SN 2011fe we consider both its specific properties, like a very compact exploding object and carbon rich composition of the fastest-moving ejecta, and the general properties of SNe Ia.
The effect of supernova natal kicks on compact object merger rate  [PDF]
Krzysztof Belczynski,Tomasz Bulik
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: Mergers of compact objects may lead to different astrophysical phenomena: they may provide sources of observable gravitational radiation, and also may be connected with gamma-ray bursts. Estimate of the rate with which such mergers take place are based on assumptions about various parameters describing the binary evolution. The distribution of one of these parameters - the kick velocity a neutron star receives at birth will strongly influence the number and orbital parameters of compact objects binaries. We calculate these effect using population synthesis of binary stars and show that the expected compact object merger rate changes by a factor of 30 when the kick velocity varies within its current observational bounds.
A Compact Central Object in the Supernova Remnant Kes 79  [PDF]
F. D. Seward,P. O. Slane,R. K. Smith,M. Sun
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345600
Abstract: A Chandra X-ray observation has detected an unresolved source at the center of the supernova remnant Kes 79. The best single-model fit to the source spectrum is a blackbody with an X-ray luminosity Lx (0.3-8.0 keV) = 7 x 10^{33} ergs s^{-1}. There is no evidence for a surrounding pulsar wind nebula. There are no cataloged counterparts at other wavelengths, but the absorption is high. The source properties are similar to the central source in Cas A even though the Kes 79 remnant is considerably older.
The Compact Central Object in the Supernova Remnant G266.2-1.2  [PDF]
Oleg Kargaltsev,George G. Pavlov,Divas Sanwal,Gordon P. Garmire
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/343852
Abstract: We observed the compact central object CXOU J085201.4--461753 in the supernova remnant G266.2--1.2 (RX J0852.0--4622) with the Chandra ACIS detector in timing mode. The spectrum of this object can be described by a blackbody model with the temperature kT=404 eV and radius of the emitting region R=0.28 km, at a distance of 1 kpc. Power-law and thermal plasma models do not fit the source spectrum. The spectrum shows a marginally significant feature at 1.68 keV. Search for periodicity yields two candidate periods, about 301 ms and 33 ms, both significant at a 2.1 sigma level; the corresponding pulsed fractions are 13% and 9%, respectively. We find no evidence for long-term variability of the source flux, nor do we find extended emission around the central object. We suggest that CXOU J085201.4--461753 is similar to CXOU J232327.9+584842, the central source of the supernova remnant Cas A. It could be either a neutron star with a low or regular magnetic field, slowly accreting from a fossil disk, or, more likely, an isolated neutron star with a superstrong magnetic field. In either case, a conservative upper limit on surface temperature of a 10 km radius neutron star is about 90 eV, which suggests accelerated cooling for a reasonable age of a few thousand years.
The Proper Motion of the Central Compact Object RX J0822-4300 in the Supernova Remnant Puppis A  [PDF]
Werner Becker,Tobias Prinz,P. Frank Winkler,Robert Petre
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/141
Abstract: Using the High Resolution Camera (HRC) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have re-examined the proper motion of the central compact object RX J0822-4300 in the supernova remnant Puppis A. New data from 2010 August, combined with three archival data sets from as early as 1999 December, provide a baseline of 3886 days (more than 10 1/2 years) to perform the measurement. Correlating the four positions of RX J0822-4300 measured in each data set implies a projected proper motion of mu 71 \pm 12 masy. For a distance of 2 kpc this proper motion is equivalent to a recoil velocity of 672 \pm 115 km/s. The position angle is found to be 244 \pm 11 degrees. Both the magnitude and direction of the proper motion are in agreement with RX J0822-4300 originating near the optical expansion center of the supernova remnant. For a displacement of 371 \pm 31 arcsec between its birth place and today's position we deduce an age of (5.2 \pm 1.0) 10^3 yrs for RX J0822-4300. The age inferred from the neutron star proper motion and filament motions can be considered as two independent measurements of the same quantity. They average to 4450 \pm 750 yrs for the age of the supernova remnant Puppis A.
The formation and merger of compact objects in central engine of active galactic nuclei and quasars: gamma-ray burst and gravitational radiation  [PDF]
K. S. Cheng,Jian-Min Wang
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/307572
Abstract: The production rate of compact objects, i.e. neutron stars (NS) and black holes (BH), in active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars (QSO), where the frequent supernova explosion is used to explain the high metallicity, is very high due to the interaction between the accretion disk and main sequence stars in the nucleus of the quasar. The compact object-red giant star (RG) binaries can be easily formed due to the large captured cross-section of the red giant stars. The (NS/BH, NS/BH) binary can be formed after the supernova explosion of the (NS/BH, RG) binary. Intense transient gamma-ray emission (gamma-ray burst) and gravitational radiation can result from the merger of these two compact objects. Collision between helium core (Hc) of RG and black hole may also take place and may also result in long duration gamma-ray bursts but no gravitational waves. We estimate that the merger rate of (NS/BH, NS/BH) binaries and (Hc, BH) is proportional to the metal abundance $({\rm \frac{NV}{CIV}})$ and can be as high as 10$^{-3}({\rm \frac{NV}{CIV}}/0.01)$ per year per AGN/QSO.
Missing Black Holes Unveil The Supernova Explosion Mechanism  [PDF]
K. Belczynski,G. Wiktorowicz,C. Fryer,D. Holz,V. Kalogera
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/91
Abstract: It is firmly established that the stellar mass distribution is smooth, covering the range 0.1-100 Msun. It is to be expected that the masses of the ensuing compact remnants correlate with the masses of their progenitor stars, and thus it is generally thought that the remnant masses should be smoothly distributed from the lightest white dwarfs to the heaviest black holes. However, this intuitive prediction is not borne out by observed data. In the rapidly growing population of remnants with observationally determined masses, a striking mass gap has emerged at the boundary between neutron stars and black holes. The heaviest neutron stars reach a maximum of two solar masses, while the lightest black holes are at least five solar masses. Over a decade after the discovery, the gap has become a significant challenge to our understanding of compact object formation. We offer new insights into the physical processes that bifurcate the formation of remnants into lower mass neutron stars and heavier black holes. Combining the results of stellar modeling with hydrodynamic simulations of supernovae, we both explain the existence of the gap, and also put stringent constraints on the inner workings of the supernova explosion mechanism. In particular, we show that core-collapse supernovae are launched within 100-200 milliseconds of the initial stellar collapse, implying that the explosions are driven by instabilities with a rapid (10-20 ms) growth time. Alternatively, if future observations fill in the gap, this will be an indication that these instabilities develop over a longer (>200 milliseconds) timescale.
A dedicated Chandra ACIS observation of the central compact object in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant  [PDF]
G. G. Pavlov,G. J. M. Luna
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/703/1/910
Abstract: We present results of a recent Chandra X-ray Observatory observation of the central compact object (CCO) in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. This observation was obtained in an instrumental configuration that combines a high spatial resolution with a minimum spectral distortion, and it allowed us to search for pulsations with periods longer than 0.68 s. We found no evidence of extended emission associated with the CCO, nor statistically significant pulsations (the 3-sigma upper limit on pulsed fraction is about 16%). The fits of the CCO spectrum with the power-law model yield a large photon index, Gamma\approx 5, and a hydrogen column density larger than that obtained from the SNR spectra. The fits with the blackbody model are statistically unacceptable. Better fits are provided by hydrogen or helium neutron star atmosphere models, with the best-fit effective temperature kT_{eff}^\infty \approx 0.2 keV, but they require a small star's radius, R = 4 - 5.5 km, and a low mass, M < 0.8 M_sol. A neutron star cannot have so small radius and mass, but the observed emission might emerge from an atmosphere of a strange quark star. More likely, the CCO could be a neutron star with a nonuniform surface temperature and a low surface magnetic field (the so-called anti-magnetar), similar to three other CCOs for which upper limits on period derivative have been established. The bolometric luminosity, L_{bol}^\infty \sim 6\times 10^{33} erg s^{-1}, estimated from the fits with the hydrogen atmosphere models, is consistent with the standard neutron star cooling for the CCO age of 330 yr. The origin of the surface temperature nonuniformity remains to be understood; it might be caused by anisotropic heat conduction in the neutron star crust with very strong toroidal magnetic fields.
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