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The dual-mirror Small Size Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
G. Pareschi,G. Agnetta,L. A. Antonelli,D. Bastieri,G. Bellassai,M. Belluso,C. Bigongiari,S. Billotta,B. Biondo,G. Bonanno,G. Bonnoli,P. Bruno,A. Bulgarelli,R. Canestrari,M. Capalbi,P. Caraveo,A. Carosi,E. Cascone,O. Catalano,M. Cereda,P. Conconi,V. Conforti,G. Cusumano,V. De Caprio,A. De Luca,A. Di Paola,F. Di Pierro,D. Fantinel,M. Fiorini,D. Fugazza,D. Gardiol,M. Ghigo,F. Gianotti,S. Giarrusso,E. Giro,A. Grillo,D. Impiombato,S. Incorvaia,A. La Barbera,N. La Palombara,V. La Parola,G. La Rosa,L. Lessio,G. Leto,S. Lombardi,F. Lucarelli,M. C. Maccarone,G. Malaguti,G. Malaspina,V. Mangano,D. Marano,E. Martinetti,R. Millul,T. Mineo,A. Mistò,C. Morello,G. Morlino,M. R. Panzera,G. Rodeghiero,P. Romano,F. Russo,B. Sacco,N. Sartore,J. Schwarz,A. Segreto,G. Sironi,G. Sottile,A. Stamerra,E. Strazzeri,L. Stringhetti,G. Tagliaferri,V. Testa,M. C. Timpanaro,G. Toso,G. Tosti,M. Trifoglio,P. Vallania,S. Vercellone,V. Zitelli,For The Astri Collaboration,J. P. Amans,C. Boisson,C. Costille,J. L. Dournaux,D. Dumas,G. Fasola,O. Hervet,J. M. Huet,P. Laporte,C. Rulten,H. Sol,A. Zech,For The Gate Collaboration,R. White,J. Hinton,D. Ross,J. Sykes,S. Ohm,J. Schmoll,P. Chadwick,T. Greenshaw,M. Daniel,G. Cotter,G. S. Varner,S. Funk,J. Vandenbroucke,L. Sapozhnikov,J. Buckley,P. Moore,D. Williams,S. Markoff,J. Vink,D. Berge,N. Hidaka,A. Okumura,H. Tajima,For The Chec Collaboration,For The Cta Consortium
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, the development of the dual mirror Small Size Telescopes (SST) for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is reviewed. Up to 70 SST, with a primary mirror diameter of 4 m, will be produced and installed at the CTA southern site. These will allow investigation of the gamma-ray sky at the highest energies accessible to CTA, in the range from about 1 TeV to 300 TeV. The telescope presented in this contribution is characterized by two major innovations: the use of a dual mirror Schwarzschild-Couder configuration and of an innovative camera using as sensors either multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPM) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The reduced plate-scale of the telescope, achieved with the dual-mirror optics, allows the camera to be compact (40 cm in diameter), and low-cost. The camera, which has about 2000 pixels of size 6x6 mm^2, covers a field of view of 10{\deg}. The dual mirror telescopes and their cameras are being developed by three consortia, ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana, Italy/INAF), GATE (Gamma-ray Telescope Elements, France/Paris Observ.) and CHEC (Compact High Energy Camera, universities in UK, US and Japan) which are merging their efforts in order to finalize an end-to-end design that will be constructed for CTA. A number of prototype structures and cameras are being developed in order to investigate various alternative designs. In this contribution, these designs are presented, along with the technological solutions under study.
Software design for the control system for Small-Size Telescopes with single-mirror of the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
A. Porcelli for the CTA Consortium,for the SST-1M sub-consortium,:,W. Bilnik,J. B?ocki,L. Bogacz,J. Borkowski,T. Bulik,F. Cadoux,A. Christov,M. Cury?o,D. della Volpe,M. Dyrda,Y. Favre,A. Frankowski,?. Grudnik,M. Grudzińska,M. Heller,B. Id?kowski,M. Jamrozy,M. Janiak,J. Kasperek,K. Lalik,E. Lyard,E. Mach,D. Mandat,A. Marsza?ek,J. Micha?owski,R. Moderski,M. Rameez,T. Montaruli,A. Neronov,J. Niemiec,M. Ostrowski,P. Pa?ko,M. Pech,A. Porcelli,E. Prandini,P. Rajda,E. jr Schioppa,P. Schovanek,K. Seweryn,K. Skowron,V. Sliusar,M. Sowiński,?. Stawarz,M. Stodulska,M. Stodulski,I. Troyano Pujadas,S. Toscano,R. Walter,M. Wi?cek,A. Zagdański,K. Zi?tara,P. Zychowski
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Small-Size Telescope with single-mirror (SST-1M) is a 4 m Davies-Cotton telescope and is among the proposed telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). It is conceived to provide the high-energy ($>$ few TeV) coverage. The SST-1M contains proven technology for the telescope structure and innovative electronics and photosensors for the camera. Its design is meant to be simple, low-budget and easy-to-build industrially. Each device subsystem of an SST-1M telescope is made visible to CTA through a dedicated industrial standard server. The software is being developed in collaboration with the CTA Medium-Size Telescopes to ensure compatibility and uniformity of the array control. Early operations of the SST-1M prototype will be performed with a subset of the CTA central array control system based on the Alma Common Software (ACS). The triggered event data are time stamped, formatted and finally transmitted to the CTA data acquisition. The software system developed to control the devices of an SST-1M telescope is described, as well as the interface between the telescope abstraction to the CTA central control and the data acquisition system.
Design, optimization and characterization of the light concentrators of the single-mirror small size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
J. A. Aguilar,A. Basili,V. Boccone,F. Cadoux,A. Christov,D. della Volpe,T. Montaruli,L. Platos,M. Rameez,for the SST-1M sub-Consortium
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2014.05.010
Abstract: The focal-plane camera of $\gamma$-ray telescopes frequently uses light concentrators in front of light sensors. The purpose of these concentrators is to increase the effective area of the camera as well as to reduce the stray light coming at large incident angles. These light concentrators are usually based on the Winston cone design. In this contribution we present the design of an hexagonal hollow light concentrator with a lateral profile optimized using a cubic B\'ezier function to achieve a higher collection efficiency in the angular region of interest. The design presented here is optimized for a Davies-Cotton telescope with primary mirror of about 4 meters of diameter and focal length of 5.6 m. The described concentrators are part of an innovative camera made up of silicon-photomultipliers sensors, although a similar approach can be used for other sizes of single-mirror telescopes with different camera sensors, including photomultipliers. The challenge of our approach is to achieve a cost-effective design suitable for standard industrial productions of both the plastic concentrator substrate and the reflective coating. At the same time we maximize the optical performance. In this paper we also describe the optical set-up to measure the absolute collection efficiency of the light guides and demonstrate our good understanding of the measured data using a professional light tracing simulation.
The small size telescope projects for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
Teresa Montaruli,Giovanni Pareschi,Tim Greenshaw
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The small size telescopes (SSTs), spread over an area of several square km, dominate the CTA sensitivity in the photon energy range from a few TeV to over 100 TeV, enabling for the detailed exploration of the very high energy gamma-ray sky. The proposed telescopes are innovative designs providing a wide field of view. Two of them, the ASTRI (Astrophysics con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) and the GCT (Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope) telescopes, are based on dual mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optics, with primary mirror diameters of 4 m. The third, SST-1M, is a Davies-Cotton design with a 4 m diameter mirror. Progress with the construction and testing of prototypes of these telescopes is presented. The SST cameras use silicon photomultipliers, with preamplifier and readout/trigger electronics designed to optimize the performance of these sensors for (atmospheric) Cherenkov light. The status of the camera developments is discussed. The SST sub-array will consist of about 70 telescopes at the CTA southern site. Current plans for the implementation of the array are presented.
Large Size Telescope camera support structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
G. Deleglise,N. Geffroy,G. Lamanna,for The Cherenkov Telescope Array Consortium
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The design of the camera support structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) is based on an elliptical arch geometry reinforced along its orthogonal projection by two symmetric sets of stabilizing ropes. The main requirements in terms of minimal camera displacement, minimal weight, minimal shadowing on the telescope mirror, maximal strength of the structures and fast dynamical stabilization have led to the application of Carbon Fibre Plastic Reinforced (CFPR) technologies. This work presents the design, static and dynamic performance of the telescope fulfilling critical specifications for the major scientific objectives of the CTA LST, e.g. Gamma Ray Burst detection.
The Optical System for the Large Size Telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
M. Hayashida,K. Noda,M. Teshima,U. Barres de Almeida,M. Chikawa,N. Cho,S. Fukami,A. Gadola,Y. Hanabata,D. Horns,C. Jablonski,H. Katagiri,M. Kagaya,M. Ogino,A. Okumura,T. Saito,R. Stadler,S. Steiner,U. Straumann,A. Vollhardt,H. Wetteskind,T. Yamamoto,T. Yoshida,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Large Size Telescope (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is designed to achieve a threshold energy of 20 GeV. The LST optics is composed of one parabolic primary mirror 23 m in diameter and 28 m focal length. The reflector dish is segmented in 198 hexagonal, 1.51 m flat to flat mirrors. The total effective reflective area, taking into account the shadow of the mechanical structure, is about 368 m$^2$. The mirrors have a sandwich structure consisting of a glass sheet of 2.7 mm thickness, aluminum honeycomb of 60 mm thickness, and another glass sheet on the rear, and have a total weight about 47 kg. The mirror surface is produced using a sputtering deposition technique to apply a 5-layer coating, and the mirrors reach a reflectivity of $\sim$94% at peak. The mirror facets are actively aligned during operations by an active mirror control system, using actuators, CMOS cameras and a reference laser. Each mirror facet carries a CMOS camera, which measures the position of the light spot of the optical axis reference laser on the target of the telescope camera. The two actuators and the universal joint of each mirror facet are respectively fixed to three neighboring joints of the dish space frame, via specially designed interface plate.
Developments of a new mirror technology for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
Jerzy Micha?owski,Michal Dyrda,Jacek Niemiec,Maciej Sowiński,Marek Stodulski
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high-energy gamma rays will consist of about a hundred of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) of different size with a total reflective area of about 10,000 m$^2$. Here we present a novel technology for the production of IACT mirrors that has been developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow, Poland. The mirrors are made by cold-slumping of the front reflecting aluminium-coated panel and the rear panel interspaced with aluminium spacers. Each panel is built of two glass panels laminated with a layer of a fibreglass tissue in between for reinforcement of the structure against mechanical damage. The mirror structure is open and does not require a perfect sealing needed in closed-type designs. It prohibits water to be trapped inside and enables a proper ventilation of the mirror. Full-size hexagonal prototype mirrors produced for the medium-sized CTA telescopes will be presented together with the results of recent comprehensive optical and durability tests. Their design will be compared to the earlier technology developed at INP PAS that used a rigid flat open support structure with a reflective layer made by cold-slumping of the coated glass panel to the cast-in-mould spherical epoxy resin layer.
SST-GATE: A dual mirror telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
A. Zech,J. -P. Amans,S. Blake,C. Boisson,C. Costille,F. De-Frondat,J. -L. Dournaux,D. Dumas,G. Fasola,T. Greenshaw,O. Hervet,J. -M. Huet,P. Laporte,C. Rulten,D. Savoie,F. Sayede,J. Schmoll,H. Sol for The CTA Consortium
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the world's first open observatory for very high energy gamma-rays. Around a hundred telescopes of different sizes will be used to detect the Cherenkov light that results from gamma-ray induced air showers in the atmosphere. Amongst them, a large number of Small Size Telescopes (SST), with a diameter of about 4 m, will assure an unprecedented coverage of the high energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum (above ~1TeV to beyond 100 TeV) and will open up a new window on the non-thermal sky. Several concepts for the SST design are currently being investigated with the aim of combining a large field of view (~9 degrees) with a good resolution of the shower images, as well as minimizing costs. These include a Davies-Cotton configuration with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) based camera, as pioneered by FACT, and a novel and as yet untested design based on the Schwarzschild-Couder configuration, which uses a secondary mirror to reduce the plate-scale and to allow for a wide field of view with a light-weight camera, e.g. using GAPDs or multi-anode photomultipliers. One objective of the GATE (Gamma-ray Telescope Elements) programme is to build one of the first Schwarzschild-Couder prototypes and to evaluate its performance. The construction of the SST-GATE prototype on the campus of the Paris Observatory in Meudon is under way. We report on the current status of the project and provide details of the opto-mechanical design of the prototype, the development of its control software, and simulations of its expected performance.
The Cherenkov Telescope Array Large Size Telescope  [PDF]
G. Ambrosi,Y. Awane,H. Baba,A. Bamba,M. Barceló,U. Barres de Almeida,J. A. Barrio,O. Blanch Bigas,J. Boix,L. Brunetti,E. Carmona,E. Chabanne,M. Chikawa,P. Colin,J. L. Conteras,J. Cortina,F. Dazzi,A. Deangelis,G. Deleglise,C. Delgado,C. Díaz,F. Dubois,A. Fiasson,D. Fink,N. Fouque,L. Freixas,C. Fruck,A. Gadola,R. García,D. Gascon,N. Geffroy,N. Giglietto,F. Giordano,F. Gra?ena,S. Gunji,R. Hagiwara,N. Hamer,Y. Hanabata,T. Hassan,K. Hatanaka,T. Haubold,M. Hayashida,R. Hermel,D. Herranz,K. Hirotani,S. Inoue,Y. Inoue,K. Ioka,C. Jablonski,M. Kagaya,H. Katagiri,T. Kishimoto,K. Kodani,K. Kohri,Y. Konno,S. Koyama,H. Kubo,J. Kushida,G. Lamanna,T. Le Flour,M. López-Moya,R. López,E. Lorenz,P. Majumdar,A. Manalaysay,M. Mariotti,G. Martínez,M. Martínez,D. Mazin,J. M. Miranda,R. Mirzoyan,I. Monteiro,A. Moralejo,K. Murase,S. Nagataki,D. Nakajima,T. Nakamori,K. Nishijima,K. Noda,A. Nozato,Y. Ohira,M. Ohishi,H. Ohoka,A. Okumura,R. Orito,J. L. Panazol,D. Paneque,R. Paoletti,J. M. Paredes,G. Pauletta,S. Podkladkin,J. Prast,R. Rando,O. Reimann,M. Ribó,S. Rosier-Lees,K. Saito,T. Saito,Y. Saito,N. Sakaki,R. Sakonaka,A. Sanuy,H. Sasaki,M. Sawada,V. Scalzotto,S. Schultz,T. Schweizer,T. Shibata,S. Shu,J. Sieiro,V. Stamatescu,S. Steiner,U. Straumann,R. Sugawara,H. Tajima,H. Takami,S. Tanaka,M. Tanaka,L. A. Tejedor,Y. Terada,M. Teshima,T. Totani,H. Ueno,K. Umehara,A. Vollhardt,R. Wagner,H. Wetteskind,T. Yamamoto,R. Yamazaki,A. Yoshida,T. Yoshida,T. Yoshikoshi,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The two arrays of the Very High Energy gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) each with a 23 m diameter dish and 28 m focal distance. These telescopes will enable CTA to achieve a low-energy threshold of 20 GeV, which is critical for important studies in astrophysics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. This work presents the key specifications and performance of the current LST design in the light of the CTA scientific objectives.
First results of the two square meters multilayer glass composite mirror design proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array developed at INFN  [PDF]
C. Schultz,M. Doro,L. Lessio,M. Mariotti,R. Rando,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future ground-based gamma-ray astronomy detector that will consist of more than 100 Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes of different sizes. The total reflective surface of roughly 10 000 m$^2$ requires unprecedented technological efforts towards a cost-efficient production of light-weight and reliable mirror substrates at high production rate. We report on a new mirror concept proposed for CTA developed by INFN, which is based on the replication from a spherical convex mold under low pressure. The mirror substrate is an open structure design made by thin glass layers at the mirror's front and rear interspaced by steel cylinders. A first series of nominal size mirrors has been produced, for which we discuss the optical properties in terms of radius of curvature and focusing power.
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