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The Effects of an AGN on Host Galaxy Colour and Morphology Measurements  [PDF]
C. M. Pierce,J. M. Lotz,J. R. Primack,D. J. V. Rosario,R. L. Griffith,C. J. Conselice,S. M. Faber,D. C. Koo,A. L. Coil,S. Salim,A. M. Koekemoer,E. S. Laird,R. J. Ivison,R. Yan
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16502.x
Abstract: We assess the effects of simulated active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the colour and morphology measurements of their host galaxies. To test the morphology measurements, we select a sample of galaxies not known to host AGNs and add a series of point sources scaled to represent specified fractions of the observed V band light detected from the resulting systems; we then compare morphology measurements of the simulated systems to measurements of the original galaxies. AGN contributions >20 per cent bias most of the morphology measurements tested, though the extent of the apparent bias depends on the morphological characteristics of the original galaxies. We test colour measurements by adding to non-AGN galaxy spectra a quasar spectrum scaled to contribute specified fractions of the rest-frame B band light detected from the resulting systems. A quasar fraction of 5 per cent can move the NUV-r colour of an elliptical galaxy from the UV-optical red sequence to the green valley, and 20 per cent can move it into the blue cloud. Combining the colour and morphology results, we find that a galaxy/AGN system with an AGN contribution >20 per cent may appear bluer and more bulge-dominated than the underlying galaxy. We conclude that (1) bulge-dominated, E/S0/Sa, and early-type morphology classifications are accurate for red AGN host galaxies and may be accurate for blue host galaxies, unless the AGN manifests itself as a well-defined point source; and (2) although highly unobscured AGNs, such as the quasar used for our experiments, can significantly bias the measured colours of AGN host galaxies, it is possible to identify such systems by examining optical images of the hosts for the presence of a point source and/or measuring the level of nuclear obscuration.
D.A. Usanov,V.I. Goremykin,A.P. Rytik,O.V. Sidorovich
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2008,
Abstract: The results of investigation ofcorrelation between patients' sclera colour and presence ofundifferentiated dysplasia of connective tissue are described in the work. The experimental technique, the scheme of determination and the example of analysis of sclera’s colour in normal and pathological states are presented.
How robust are predictions of galaxy clustering?  [PDF]
Sergio Contreras,Carlton Baugh,Peder Norberg,Nelson Padilla
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt629
Abstract: We use the Millennium Simulation database to compare how different versions of the Durham and Munich semi-analytical galaxy formation models populate dark matter haloes with galaxies. The models follow the same physical processes but differ in how these are implemented. All of the models we consider use the Millennium N-body Simulation; however, the Durham and Munich groups use independent algorithms to construct halo merger histories. We compare the predicted halo occupation distributions (HODs) and correlation functions for galaxy samples defined by stellar mass, cold gas mass and star formation rate. The predictions for the HOD are remarkably similar for samples ranked by stellar mass. The predicted bias averaged over 5-25 Mpc/h is consistent between models to within 10%. At small pair separations there is a difference in the predicted clustering. This arises because the Durham models allow some satellite galaxies to merge with the central galaxy in a halo when they are still associated with resolved subhaloes. The agreement between the models is less good for samples defined by cold gas mass or star formation rate, with the small scale clustering differing by an order of magnitude, reflecting the uncertainty in the modelling of star formation. The model predictions in these cases are qualitatively similar, with a markedly shallower slope for the correlation function than is found for stellar mass selected samples and with the HOD displaying an asymmetric peak for central galaxies. We provide illustrative parametric fits to the HODs predicted by the models. Our results reveal the current limitations on how well we can predict galaxy bias in a fixed cosmology, which has implications for the interpretation of constraints on the physics of galaxy formation from galaxy clustering measurements and the ability of future galaxy surveys to measure dark energy.
Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The dependence of the galaxy luminosity function on environment, redshift and colour  [PDF]
Tamsyn McNaught-Roberts,Peder Norberg,Carlton Baugh,Cedric Lacey,J. Loveday,J. Peacock,I. Baldry,J. Bland-Hawthorn,S. Brough,Simon P. Driver,A. S. G. Robotham,J. A. Vazquez-Mata
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1886
Abstract: We use 80922 galaxies in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to measure the galaxy luminosity function (LF) in different environments over the redshift range 0.04
The impact of galaxy colour gradients on cosmic shear measurement  [PDF]
L. M. Voigt,S. L. Bridle,A. Amara,M. Cropper,T. D. Kitching,R. Massey,J. Rhodes,T. Schrabback
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20395.x
Abstract: Cosmic shear has been identified as the method with the most potential to constrain dark energy. To capitalise on this potential it is necessary to measure galaxy shapes with great accuracy, which in turn requires a detailed model for the image blurring, the Point Spread Function (PSF). In general the PSF varies with wavelength and therefore the PSF integrated over an observing filter depends on the spectrum of the object. For a typical galaxy the spectrum varies across the galaxy image, thus the PSF depends on the position within the image. We estimate the bias on the shear due to such colour gradients by modelling galaxies using two co-centered, co-elliptical Sersic profiles, each with a different spectrum. We estimate the effect of ignoring colour gradients and find the shear bias from a single galaxy can be very large depending on the properties of the galaxy. We find that halving the filter width reduces the shear bias by a factor of about 5. We show that, to first order, tomographic cosmic shear two point statistics depend on the mean shear bias over the galaxy population at a given redshift. For a single broad filter, and averaging over a small galaxy catalogue, we find a mean shear bias which is subdominant to the predicted statistical errors for future cosmic shear surveys. However, the true mean shear bias may exceed the statistical errors, depending on how accurately the catalogue represents the observed distribution of galaxies in the cosmic shear survey. We then investigate the bias on the shear for two-filter imaging and find that the bias is reduced by at least an order of magnitude. Lastly, we find that it is possible to calibrate galaxies for which colour gradients were ignored using two-filter imaging of a fair sample of noisy galaxies, if the galaxy model is known. For a S/N of 25 the number of galaxies required in each tomographic redshift bin is of order 1e4.
The host galaxies of radio-loud AGN: colour structure  [PDF]
Elizabeth J. A. Mannering,Diana M. Worrall,Mark Birkinshaw
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19235.x
Abstract: We construct a sample of 3,516 radio-loud host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST). These have 1.4 GHz luminosities in the range 10E23-1025 WHz^{-1}, span redshifts 0.022.22 mag). Optical emission line ratios (at >3 sigma) are used to remove type 1 AGN and star-forming galaxies from the radio sample using BPT diagnostics. For comparison, we select a sample of 35,160 radio-quiet galaxies with the same r*-band magnitude-redshift distribution as the radio sample. We also create comparison radio and control samples derived by adding the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to quantify the effect of completeness on our results. We investigate the effective radii of the surface brightness profiles in the SDSS r and u bands in order to quantify any excess of blue colour in the inner region of radio galaxies. We define a ratio R=r_{e}(r)/r_{e}(u) and use maximum likelihood analysis to compare the average value of R and its intrinsic dispersion between both samples. R is larger for the radio-loud AGN sample as compared to its control counterpart, and we conclude that the two samples are not drawn from the same population at >99% significance. Given that star formation proceeds over a longer time than radio activity, the difference suggests that a subset of galaxies has the predisposition to become radio loud. We discuss host galaxy features that cause the presence of a radio-loud AGN to increase the scale size of a galaxy in red relative to blue light, including excess central blue emission, point-like blue emission from the AGN itself, and/or diffuse red emission. We favour an explanation that arises from the stellar rather than the AGN light.
GAIA Galaxy Survey: a multi-colour galaxy survey with GAIA  [PDF]
Mattia Vaccari
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/eas:2002031
Abstract: The performance expected from a galaxy survey to be carried out with GAIA, the GAIA Galaxy Survey, is outlined. From a statistical model of galaxy number density, size and surface brightness distribution, and from detailed numerical simulations based on real images, it is conservatively estimated that GAIA would be able to detect and observe about 3 million galaxies brighter than $V \simeq 17$ and to provide multi-colour and multi-epoch broad-band photometry of these with an end-of-mission angular resolution of $\simeq$ 0.35 \as and a photometric accuracy of $simeq$ 0.2 {mag/arcsec$^2$} at $\mu_V = 20$ {mag/arcsec$^2$}. The substantial scientific case for performing such a survey and the additional efforts required in terms of mission preparation, operations and telemetry are also discussed.
On the Continuous Formation of Field Spheroidal Galaxies in Hierarchical Models of Structure Formation  [PDF]
A. J. Benson,R. S. Ellis,F. Menanteau
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05774.x
Abstract: We re-examine the assembly history of field spheroidals as a potentially powerful discriminant of galaxy formation models. Whereas monolithic collapse and hierarchical, merger-driven, models suggest radically different histories for these galaxies, neither the theoretical predictions nor the observational data for field galaxies have been sufficiently reliable for precise conclusions to be drawn. A major difficulty in interpreting the observations, reviewed here, concerns the taxonomic definition of spheroidals in merger-based models. Using quantitative measures of recent star formation activity drawn from the internal properties of a sample of distant field galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields, we undertake a new analysis to assess the continuous formation of spheroidal galaxies. Whereas abundances and redshift distributions of modelled spheroidals are fairly insensitive to their formation path, we demonstrate that the distribution and amount of blue light arising from recent mergers provides a more sensitive approach. With the limited resolved data currently available, the rate of mass assembly implied by the observed colour inhomogeneities is compared to that expected in popular Lambda-dominated cold dark matter models of structure formation. These models produce as many highly inhomogeneous spheroidals as observed, but underpredict the proportion of homogeneous, passive objects. We conclude that colour inhomogeneities, particularly when combined with spectroscopic diagnostics for large, representative samples of field spheroidals, will be a more valuable test of their physical assembly history than basic source counts and redshift distributions. Securing such data should be a high priority for the Advanced Camera for Surveys on Hubble Space Telescope.
Confronting predictions of the galaxy stellar mass function with observations at high-redshift  [PDF]
Stephen M. Wilkins,Tiziana Di Matteo,Rupert Croft,Nishikanta Khandai,Yu Feng,Andrew Bunker,William Coulton
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts480
Abstract: We investigate the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function at high-redshift ($z\ge 5$) using a pair of large cosmological hydrodynamical simulations: {\em MassiveBlack} and {\em MassiveBlack-II}. By combining these simulations we can study the properties of galaxies with stellar masses greater than $10^{8}\,{\rm M_{\odot}}\,h^{-1}$ and (co-moving) number densities of $\log_{10}(\phi\, [{\rm Mpc^{-3}\,dex^{-1}}\,h^{3}])>-8$. Observational determinations of the galaxy stellar mass function at very-high redshift typically assume a relation between the observed UV luminosity and stellar mass-to-light ratio which is applied to high-redshift samples in order to estimate stellar masses. This relation can also be measured from the simulations. We do this, finding two significant differences with the usual observational assumption: it evolves strongly with redshift and has a different shape. Using this relation to make a consistent comparison between galaxy stellar mass functions we find that at $z=6$ and above the simulation predictions are in good agreement with observed data over the whole mass range. Without using the correct UV luminosity and stellar mass-to-light ratio, the discrepancy would be up to two orders of magnitude for large galaxies $>10^{10}\,{\rm M_{\odot}}\,h^{-1}$. At $z=5$, however the stellar mass function for low mass $<10^{9}\,{\rm M_{\odot}}\,h^{-1}$ galaxies is overpredicted by factors of a few, consistent with the behaviour of the UV luminosity function, and perhaps a sign that feedback in the simulation is not efficient enough for these galaxies.
Probing galaxy evolution through the internal colour gradients, the Kormendy relations and the Photometric Plane of cluster galaxies at z~0.2  [PDF]
F. La Barbera,P. Merluzzi,G. Busarello,M. Massarotti,A. Mercurio
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20047157
Abstract: We present a detailed analysis of the photometric properties of galaxies in the cluster \A2163B at redshift z~0.2. R-, I- and K-band structural parameters, (half light radius r_e, mean surface brightness _e within r_e and Sersic index n) are derived for N~60 galaxies, and are used to study their internal colour gradients. For the first time, we use the slopes of optical-NIR Kormendy relations to study colour gradients as a function of galaxy size, and we derive the Photometric Plane at z~0.2 in the K band. Colour gradients are negligible at optical wavelengths, and are negative in the optical-NIR, implying a metallicity gradient in galaxies of ~0.2 dex per radial decade. The analysis of the Kormendy relation suggests that its slope increases from the optical to the NIR, implying that colour gradients do not vary or even do become less steep in more massive galaxies. Such a result is not simply accomodated within a monolithic collapse scenario, while it can be well understood within a hierarchical merging framework. Finally, we derive the first NIR Photometric Plane at z~0.2, accounting for both the correlations on the measurement uncertainties and the selection effects. The Photometric Plane at z~0.2 is consistent with that at z~0, with an intrinsic scatter significantly smaller than the Kormendy relation but larger than the Fundamental Plane.
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