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Cosmic-muon flux and annual modulation in Borexino at 3800 m water-equivalent depth  [PDF]
G. Bellini,J. Benziger,D. Bick,G. Bonfini,D. Bravo,M. Buizza Avanzini,B. Caccianiga,L. Cadonati,F. Calaprice,C. Carraro,P. Cavalcante,A. Chavarria,A. Chepurnov,D. D'Angelo,S. Davini,A. Derbin,A. Etenko,F. von Feilitzsch,K. Fomenko,D. Franco,C. Galbiati,S. Gazzana,C. Ghiano,M. Giammarchi,M. Goeger-Neff,A. Goretti,L. Grandi,E. Guardincerri,C. Hagner,S. Hardy,Aldo Ianni,Andrea Ianni,D. Korablev,G. Korga,Y. Koshio,D. Kryn,M. Laubenstein,T. Lewke,E. Litvinovich,B. Loer,F. Lombardi,P. Lombardi,L. Ludhova,I. Machulin,S. Manecki,W. Maneschg,G. Manuzio,Q. Meindl,E. Meroni,L. Miramonti,M. Misiaszek,D. Montanari,P. Mosteiro,V. Muratova,L. Oberauer,M. Obolensky,F. Ortica,K. Otis,M. Pallavicini,L. Papp,L. Perasso,S. Perasso,A. Pocar,R. S. Raghavan,G. Ranucci,A. Razeto,A. Re,A. Romani,A. Sabelnikov,R. Saldanha,C. Salvo,S. Sch?nert,H. Simgen,M. Skorokhvatov,O. Smirnov,A. Sotnikov,S. Sukhotin,Y. Suvorov,R. Tartaglia,G. Testera,D. Vignaud,R. B. Vogelaar,J. Winter,M. Wojcik,A. Wright,M. Wurm,J. Xu,O. Zaimidoroga,S. Zavatarelli,G. Zuzel
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2012/05/015
Abstract: We have measured the muon flux at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (3800 m w.e.) to be (3.41 \pm 0.01) \times 10-4m-2s-1 using four years of Borexino data. A modulation of this signal is observed with a period of (366\pm3) days and a relative amplitude of (1.29 \pm 0.07)%. The measured phase is (179 \pm 6) days, corresponding to a maximum on the 28th of June. Using the most complete atmospheric data models available, muon rate fluctuations are shown to be positively correlated with atmospheric temperature, with an effective coefficient {\alpha}T = 0.93 \pm 0.04. This result represents the most precise study of the muon flux modulation for this site and is in good agreement with expectations.
Muon and Cosmogenic Neutron Detection in Borexino  [PDF]
Borexino Collaboration,G. Bellini,J. Benziger,D. Bick,S. Bonetti,M. Buizza Avanzini,B. Caccianiga,L. Cadonati,F. Calaprice,C. Carraro,A. Chavarria,A. Chepurnov,D. D'Angelo,S. Davini,A. Derbin,A. Etenko,F. von Feilitzsch,K. Fomenko,D. Franco,C. Galbiati,S. Gazzana,C. Ghiano,M. Giammarchi,M. Goeger-Neff,A. Goretti,E. Guardincerri,S. Hardy,Aldo Ianni,Andrea Ianni,M. Joyce,V. Kobychev,Y. Koshio,D. Korablev,G. Korga,D. Kryn,M. Laubenstein,C. Lendvai,T. Lewke,E. Litvinovich,B. Loer,F. Lombardi,P. Lombardi,L. Ludhova,I. Machulin,S. Manecki,W. Maneschg,G. Manuzio,Q. Meindl,E. Meroni,L. Miramonti,M. Misiaszek,D. Montanari,V. Muratova,L. Oberauer,M. Obolensky,F. Ortica,M. Pallavicini,L. Papp,L. Perasso,S. Perasso,A. Pocar,R. S. Raghavan,G. Ranucci,A. Razeto,A. Re,A. Romani,D. Rountree,A. Sabelnikov,R. Saldanha,C. Salvo,S. Sch?nert,H. Simgen,M. Skorokhvatov,O. Smirnov,A. Sotnikov,S. Sukhotin,Y. Suvorov,R. Tartaglia,G. Testera,D. Vignaud,R. B. Vogelaar,J. Winter,M. Wojcik,A. Wright,M. Wurm,J. Xu,O. Zaimidoroga,S. Zavatarelli,G. Zuzel
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/6/05/P05005
Abstract: Borexino, a liquid scintillator detector at LNGS, is designed for the detection of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the Sun, supernovae, nuclear reactors, and the Earth. The feeble nature of these signals requires a strong suppression of backgrounds below a few MeV. Very low intrinsic radiogenic contamination of all detector components needs to be accompanied by the efficient identification of muons and of muon-induced backgrounds. Muons produce unstable nuclei by spallation processes along their trajectory through the detector whose decays can mimic the expected signals; for isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds, the dead time induced by a muon-related veto becomes unacceptably long, unless its application can be restricted to a sub-volume along the muon track. Consequently, not only the identification of muons with very high efficiency but also a precise reconstruction of their tracks is of primary importance for the physics program of the experiment. The Borexino inner detector is surrounded by an outer water-Cherenkov detector that plays a fundamental role in accomplishing this task. The detector design principles and their implementation are described. The strategies adopted to identify muons are reviewed and their efficiency is evaluated. The overall muon veto efficiency is found to be 99.992% or better. Ad-hoc track reconstruction algorithms developed are presented. Their performance is tested against muon events of known direction such as those from the CNGS neutrino beam, test tracks available from a dedicated External Muon Tracker and cosmic muons whose angular distribution reflects the local overburden profile. The achieved angular resolution is 3-5 deg and the lateral resolution is 35-50 cm, depending on the impact parameter of the crossing muon. The methods implemented to efficiently tag cosmogenic neutrons are also presented.
Study of Cosmogenic Neutron Backgrounds at LNGS  [PDF]
A. Empl,R. Jasim,E. Hungerford,P. Mosteiro
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Cosmic muon interactions are important contributors to backgrounds in underground detectors when searching for rare events. Typically neutrons dominate this background as they are particularly difficult to shield and detect in a veto system. Since actual background data is sparse and not well documented, simulation studies must be used to design shields and predict background rates. This means that validation of any simulation code is necessary to assure reliable results. This work studies the validation of the FLUKA simulation code, and reports the results of a simulation of cosmogenic background for a liquid argon two-phase detector embedded within a water tank and liquid scintillator shielding.
Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0νββ in EXO-200  [PDF]
EXO-200 Collaboration,:,J. B. Albert,D. J. Auty,P. S. Barbeau,D. Beck,V. Belov,M. Breidenbach,T. Brunner,A. Burenkov,G. F. Cao,C. Chambers,B. Cleveland,M. Coon,A. Craycraft,T. Daniels,M. Danilov,S. J. Daugherty,J. Davis,S. Delaquis,A. Der Mesrobian-Kabakian,R. DeVoe,T. Didberidze,J. Dilling,A. Dolgolenko,M. J. Dolinski,M. Dunford,W. Fairbank Jr,J. Farine,W. Feldmeier,S. Feyzbakhsh,P. Fierlinger,D. Fudenberg,R. Gornea,K. Graham,G. Gratta,C. Hall,S. Herrin,M. Hughes,M. J. Jewell,A. Johnson,T. N. Johnson,S. Johnston,A. Karelin,L. J. Kaufman,R. Killick,T. Koffas,S. Kravitz,R. Krücken,A. Kuchenkov,K. S. Kumar,D. S. Leonard,C. Licciardi,Y. H. Lin,J. Ling,R. MacLellan,M. G. Marino,B. Mong,D. Moore,O. Njoya,R. Nelson,A. Odian,I. Ostrovskiy,A. Piepke,A. Pocar,C. Y. Prescott,F. Retière,P. C. Rowson,J. J. Russell,A. Schubert,D. Sinclair,E. Smith,V. Stekhanov,M. Tarka,T. Tolba,R. Tsang,K. Twelker,J. -L. Vuilleumier,A. Waite,J. Walton,T. Walton,M. Weber,L. J. Wen,U. Wichoski,J. Wood,L. Yang,Y. -R. Yen,O. Ya. Zeldovich
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\Phi} = 4.07 $\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\nu}{\beta}{\beta} search with EXO-200. Muon-induced neutron backgrounds were measured using {\gamma}-rays from neutron capture on the detector materials. This provided a measurement of 137Xe yield, and a test of the accuracy of the neutron production and transport simulations. The independently measured rates of 136Xe neutron capture and of 137Xe decay agree within uncertainties. Geant4 and FLUKA simulations were performed to estimate neutron capture rates, and these estimates agreed to within ~40% or better with measurements. The ability to identify 136Xe(n,{\gamma}) events will allow for rejection of 137Xe backgrounds in future 0{\nu}{\beta}{\beta} analyses.
Recent Borexino results and prospects for the near future  [PDF]
D. D'Angelo,G. Bellini,J. Benziger,D. Bick,G. Bonfini,M. Buizza Avanzini,B. Caccianiga,L. Cadonati,F. Calaprice,P. Cavalcante,A. Chavarria,A. Chepurnov,S. Davini,A. Derbin,A. Empl,A. Etenko,F. von Feilitzsch,K. Fomenko,D. Franco,C. Galbiati,S. Gazzana,C. Ghiano,M. Giammarchi,M. Goeger-Neff,A. Goretti,L. Grandi,C. Hagner,E. Hungerford,Aldo Ianni,Andrea Ianni,V. Kobychev,D. Korablev,G. Korga,D. Kryn,M. Laubenstein,B. Lehnert,T. Lewke,E. Litvinovich,F. Lombardi,P. Lombardi,L. Ludhova,G. Lukyanchenko,I. Machulin,S. Manecki,W. Maneschg,G. Manuzio,Q. Meindl,E. Meroni,L. Miramonti,M. Misiaszek,P. Mosteiro,V. Muratova,L. Oberauer,M. Obolensky,F. Ortica,K. Otis,M. Pallavicini,L. Papp,L. Perasso,S. Perasso,A. Pocar,G. Ranucci,A. Razeto,A. Re,A. Romani,N. Rossi,R. Saldanha,C. Salvo,S. Schoenert,H. Simgen,M. Skorokhvatov,O. Smirnov,A. Sotnikov,S. Sukhotin,Y. Suvorov,R. Tartaglia,G. Testera,D. Vignaud,R. B. Vogelaar,J. Winter,M. Wojcik,A. Wright,M. Wurm,J. Xu,O. Zaimidoroga,S. Zavatarelli,K. Zuber,G. Zuzel
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The Borexino experiment, located in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, is an organic liquid scintillator detector conceived for the real time spectroscopy of low energy solar neutrinos. The data taking campaign phase I (2007 - 2010) has allowed the first independent measurements of 7Be, 8B and pep fluxes as well as the first measurement of anti-neutrinos from the earth. After a purification of the scintillator, Borexino is now in phase II since 2011. We review here the recent results achieved during 2013, concerning the seasonal modulation in the 7Be signal, the study of cosmogenic backgrounds and the updated measurement of geo-neutrinos. We also review the upcoming measurements from phase II data (pp, pep, CNO) and the project SOX devoted to the study of sterile neutrinos via the use of a 51Cr neutrino source and a 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino source placed in close proximity of the active material.
CNO and pep neutrino spectroscopy in Borexino: Measurement of the deep underground production of cosmogenic 11C in organic liquid scintillator  [PDF]
Borexino Collaboration
Statistics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.74.045805
Abstract: Borexino is an experiment for low energy neutrino spectroscopy at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. It is designed to measure the mono-energetic $^7$Be solar neutrino flux in real time, via neutrino-electron elastic scattering in ultra-pure organic liquid scintillator. Borexino has the potential to also detect neutrinos from the \emph{pep} fusion process and the CNO cycle. For this measurement to be possible, radioactive contamination in the detector must be kept extremely low. Once sufficiently clean conditions are met, the main background source is $^{11}$C, produced in reactions induced by the residual cosmic muon flux on $^{12}$C. In the process, a free neutron is almost always produced. $^{11}$C can be tagged on an event by event basis by looking at the three-fold coincidence with the parent muon track and the subsequent neutron capture on protons. This coincidence method has been implemented on the Borexino Counting Test Facility data. We report on the first event by event identification of \emph{in situ} muon induced $^{11}$C in a large underground scintillator detector. We measure a $^{11}$C production rate of 0.130 $\pm$ 0.026 (stat) $\pm$ 0.014 (syst) day$^{-1}$ ton$^{-1}$, in agreement with predictions from both experimental studies performed with a muon beam on a scintillator target and \emph{ab initio} estimations based on the $^{11}$C producing nuclear reactions.
Borexino  [PDF]
Lino Miramonti
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: Borexino is a massive calorimetric liquid scintillation detector whose installation has been completed in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. The focus of the experiment is on the direct and real time measurement of the flux of neutrinos produced in the $^{7}Be$ electron capture reaction in the Sun. Furthermore, recent studies about the reduction of the $^{11}C$ background through suitable rejection techniques demonstrated the possibility to open an interesting additional observation window in the energy region of the pep and CNO solar neutrinos. Beyond the solar neutrino program, the detector will be also a powerful observatory for antineutrinos from Supernovae, as well as for geoneutrinos, profiting from a very low background from nuclear reactors.
Nucleon Decay Searches with large Liquid Argon TPC Detectors at Shallow Depths: atmospheric neutrinos and cosmogenic backgrounds
Bueno, A.;Dai, Z.;Ge, Y.;Laffranchi, M.;Melgarejo, A. J.;Meregaglia, A.;Navas, S.;Rubbia, A.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/04/041
Abstract: Grand Unification of the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions into a single unified gauge group is an extremely appealing idea which has been vigorously pursued theoretically and experimentally for many years. The detection of proton or bound-neutron decays would represent its most direct experimental evidence. In this context, we studied the physics potentialities of very large underground Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPC). We carried out a detailed simulation of signal efficiency and background sources, including atmospheric neutrinos and cosmogenic backgrounds. We point out that a liquid Argon TPC, offering good granularity and energy resolution, low particle detection threshold, and excellent background discrimination, should yield very good signal over background ratios in many possible decay modes, allowing to reach partial lifetime sensitivities in the range of $10^{34}-10^{35}$ years with exposures up to 1000 kton$\times$year, often in quasi-background-free conditions optimal for discoveries at the few events level, corresponding to atmospheric neutrino background rejections of the order of $10^5$. Multi-prong decay modes like e.g. $p\to \mu^- \pi^+ K^+$ or $p\to e^+\pi^+\pi^-$ and channels involving kaons like e.g. $p\to K^+\bar\nu$, $p\to e^+K^0$ and $p\to \mu^+K^0$ are particularly suitable, since liquid Argon imaging (...)
Geoneutrinos in Borexino  [PDF]
Marco G. Giammarchi,Lino Miramonti
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s11038-006-9106-6
Abstract: This paper describes the Borexino detector and the high-radiopurity studies and tests that are integral part of the Borexino technology and development. The application of Borexino to the detection and studies of geoneutrinos is discussed.
Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment  [PDF]
D. Franco,C. Giganti,P. Agnes,L. Agostino,B. Bottino,S. Davini,S. De Cecco,A. Fan,G. Fiorillo,C. Galbiati,A. M. Goretti,E. V. Hungerford,Al. Ianni,An. Ianni,C. Jollet,L. Marini,C. J. Martoff,A. Meregaglia,L. Pagani,M. Pallavicini,E. Pantic,A. Pocar,A. L. Renshaw,B. Rossi,N. Rossi,Y. Suvorov,G. Testera,A. Tonazzo,H. Wang,S. Zavatarelli
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The direct search for dark matter WIMP particles through their interaction with nuclei at the "neutrino floor" sensitivity, where neutrino-induced coherent scattering on nuclei starts contributing to the background, requires detectors capable of collecting exposures of the order of 1~ktonne yr free of background resulting from beta and gamma decays and cosmogenic and radiogenic neutrons. The same constraints are required for precision measurements of solar neutrinos elastically scattering on electrons. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are prime candidates for the ambitious program to explore the nature of dark matter. The large target, high scintillation light yield and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions concurrently allows a high precision measurement of solar neutrino fluxes. We studied the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). Such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with 5 sigma sensitivity, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector. Measurements with ~2%, ~10% and ~15% precision for 7Be, pep, and CNO neutrinos, respectively, are possible.
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