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Curvaton Dynamics  [PDF]
Konstantinos Dimopoulos,George Lazarides,David Lyth,Roberto Ruiz de Austri
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.68.123515
Abstract: In contrast to the inflaton's case, the curvature perturbations due to the curvaton field depend strongly on the evolution of the curvaton before its decay. We study in detail the dynamics of the curvaton evolution during and after inflation. We consider that the flatness of the curvaton potential may be affected by supergravity corrections, which introduce an effective mass proportional to the Hubble parameter. We also consider that the curvaton potential may be dominated by a quartic or by a non-renormalizable term. We find analytic solutions for the curvaton's evolution for all these possibilities. In particular, we show that, in all the above cases, the curvaton's density ratio with respect to the background density of the Universe decreases. Therefore, it is necessary that the curvaton decays only after its potential becomes dominated by the quadratic term, which results in (Hubble damped) sinusoidal oscillations. In the case when a non-renormalizable term dominates the potential, we find a possible non-oscillatory attractor solution that threatens to erase the curvature perturbation spectrum. Finally, we study the effects of thermal corrections to the curvaton's potential and show that, if they ever dominate the effective mass, they lead to premature thermalization of the curvaton condensate. To avoid this danger, a stringent bound has to be imposed on the coupling of the curvaton to the thermal bath.
The hybrid curvaton  [PDF]
Konstantinos Dimopoulos,Kazunori Kohri,Tomohiro Matsuda
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.123541
Abstract: We study both oscillating and inflating curvaton scenarios when the curvaton mechanism is caused by a hybrid potential. The source of the curvature perturbation is the inhomogeneous phase transition that causes the modulation of the onset of the oscillation. For the supergravity-motivated curvaton there is a possibility of finding natural coincidence of the energy density that is needed to affect non-Gaussianity in the curvaton scenario.
The Subdominant Curvaton  [PDF]
Kari Enqvist,Sami Nurmi,Gerasimos Rigopoulos,Olli Taanila,Tomo Takahashi
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2009/11/003
Abstract: We present a systematic study of the amplitude of the primordial perturbation in curvaton models with self-interactions, treating both renormalizable and non-renormalizable interactions. In particular, we consider the possibility that the curvaton energy density is subdominant at the time of the curvaton decay. We find that large regions in the parameter space give rise to the observed amplitude of primordial perturbation even for non-renormalizable curvaton potentials, for which the curvaton energy density dilutes fast. At the time of its decay, the curvaton energy density may typically be subdominant by a relative factor of 10^-3 and still produce the observed perturbation. Field dynamics turns out to be highly non-trivial, and for non-renormalizable potentials and certain regions of the parameter space we observe a non-monotonous relation between the final curvature perturbation and the initial curvaton value. In those cases, the time evolution of the primordial perturbation also displays an oscillatory behaviour before the curvaton decay.
The Curvaton Web  [PDF]
Andrei Linde,Viatcheslav Mukhanov
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2006/04/009
Abstract: We discuss nontrivial features of the large scale structure of the universe in the simplest curvaton model proposed in our paper astro-ph/9610219. The amplitude of metric perturbations in this model takes different values in different parts of the universe. The spatial distribution of the amplitude looks like a web consisting of exponentially large cells. Depending on the relation between the cell size l_0 and the scale of the horizon l_H, one may either live in a part of the universe dominated by gaussian perturbations (inside a cell with l_0 >> l_H), or in the universe dominated by nongaussian perturbations (for l_0 << l_H). We show that the curvaton contribution to the total amplitude of adiabatic density perturbations can be strongly suppressed if the energy density of the universe prior to the curvaton decay was dominated not by the classical curvaton field but by the curvaton particles produced during reheating. We describe the curvaton-inflaton transmutation effect: The same field in different parts of the universe may play either the role of the curvaton or the role of the inflaton. Finally, we discuss an interplay between the curvaton web and anthropic considerations in the string theory landscape.
Runnings in the Curvaton  [PDF]
Takeshi Kobayashi,Tomo Takahashi
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2012/06/004
Abstract: We investigate the scale-dependence, or the runnings, of linear and second order density perturbations generated in various curvaton scenarios. We argue that the second order perturbations, i.e. non-Gaussianity, can strongly depend on the scale, even when the linear perturbations are nearly scale-invariant. We present analytic formulae for the runnings from curvatons with general energy potentials, and clarify the conditions under which fNL becomes strongly scale-dependent. From the point of view of the fNL running, curvaton potentials can be classified into roughly two categories by whether the potential flattens or steepens compared to a quadratic one. As such examples, we study pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone curvatons, and self-interacting curvatons, respectively. The dynamics of non-quadratic curvatons and the behaviors of the resulting density perturbations are clarified by analytical methods. Then we also study models where multiple source can be responsible for density perturbations such as the multi-curvaton, and mixed curvaton and inflaton models where the running of fNL can also be large due to their multi-source nature. We make quantitative analysis for each curvaton scenario and discuss in what cases the scale-dependence, in particular, of fNL can be large enough to be probed with future CMB experiments.
Curvaton with Polynomial Potential
Huang, Qing-Guo
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2008/11/005
Abstract: In general a weakly self-interacting curvaton field is expected and the curvaton potential takes the polynomial form. The curvaton potential can be dominated by the self-interaction term during the period of inflation if the curvaton field stays at a large vacuum expectation value. We use the $\delta {\cal N}$ formalism to calculate the primordial curvature perturbation in the various possible scenarios which make the curvaton model much richer.
The inflating curvaton  [PDF]
Konstantinos Dimopoulos,Kazunori Kohri,David H. Lyth,Tomohiro Matsuda
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2012/03/022
Abstract: The primordial curvature perturbation \zeta may be generated by some curvaton field \sigma, which is negligible during inflation and has more or less negligible interactions until it decays. In the current scenario, the curvaton starts to oscillate while its energy density \rho_\sigma is negligible. We explore the opposite scenario, in which \rho_\sigma drives a few e-folds of inflation before the oscillation begins. In this scenario for generating \zeta it is exceptionally easy to solve the \eta problem; one just has to make the curvaton a string axion, with anomaly-mediated susy breaking which may soon be tested at the LHC. The observed spectral index n can be obtained with a potential V\propto \phi^p for the first inflation; p=1 or 2 is allowed by the current uncertainty in n but the improvement in accuracy promised by Planck may rule out p=1. The predictions include (i) running n'\simeq 0.0026 (0.0013) for p=1 (2) that will probably be observed, (ii) non-gaussianity parameter f_NL \sim -1 that may be observed, (iii) tensor fraction r is probably too small to ever observed.
The Vector Curvaton  [PDF]
Andres A. Navarro,Yeinzon Rodriguez
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4817057
Abstract: We analyze a massive vector field with a non-canonical kinetic term in the action, minimally coupled to gravity, where the mass and kinetic function of the vector field vary as functions of time during inflation. The vector field is introduced following the same idea of a scalar curvaton, which must not affect the inflationary dynamics since its energy density during inflation is negligible compared to the total energy density in the Universe. Using this hypothesis, the vector curvaton will be solely responsible for generating the primordial curvature perturbation \zeta. We have found that the spectra of the vector field perturbations are scale-invariant in superhorizon scales due to the suitable choice of the time dependence of the kinetic function and the effective mass during inflation. The preferred direction, generated by the vector field, makes the spectrum of \zeta depend on the wavevector, i.e. there exists statistical anisotropy in \zeta. This is discussed principally in the case where the mass of the vector field increases with time during inflation, where it is possible to find a heavy field (M >> H) at the end of inflation, making the particle production be practically isotropic; thus, the longitudinal and transverse spectra are nearly the same order which in turn causes that the statistical anisotropy generated by the vector field is within the observational bounds.
Curvaton decay into relativistic matter  [PDF]
Jani Sainio,Iiro Vilja
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.083516
Abstract: We consider an inflationary curvaton scenario, where the curvaton decays into two non-interacting relativistic fluids and later during the cosmological evolution one of them becomes non-relativistic, forming dark matter component of the universe. We study the thermic properties and the generation of non-gaussianity in this three fluid curvaton model. By solving the evolution of the system and using several cosmological conditions we find that the allowed parameter space is strongly constrained. The naturalness of this curvaton scenario is also discussed.
Tracking Curvaton(s)?  [PDF]
Massimo Giovannini
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.083509
Abstract: The ratio of the curvaton energy density to that of the dominant component of the background sources may be constant during a significant period in the evolution of the Universe. The possibility of having tracking curvatons, whose decay occurs prior to the nucleosynthesis epoch, is studied. It is argued that the tracking curvaton dynamics is disfavoured since the value of the curvature perturbations prior to curvaton decay is smaller than the value required by observations. It is also argued, in a related context, that the minimal inflationary curvature scale compatible with the curvaton paradigm may be lowered in the case of low-scale quintessential inflation.
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