Abstract:
In traditional quantum optics, where the interaction between atoms and light at optical frequencies is studied, the atoms can be approximated as point-like when compared to the wavelength of light. So far, this relation has also been true for artificial atoms made out of superconducting circuits or quantum dots, interacting with microwave radiation. However, recent and ongoing experiments using surface acoustic waves show that a single artificial atom can be coupled to a bosonic field at several points wavelengths apart. Here, we theoretically study this type of system. We find that the multiple coupling points give rise to a frequency dependence in the coupling strength between the atom and its environment, and also in the Lamb shift of the atom. The frequency dependence is given by the discrete Fourier transform of the coupling point coordinates and can therefore be designed. We discuss a number of possible applications for this phenomenon, including tunable coupling, single-atom lasing, and other effects that can be achieved by designing the relative coupling strengths of different transitions in a multi-level atom.

Abstract:
The interaction of an atom with an electromagnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electromagnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits dynamical localization and quantum recurrences.

Abstract:
A continuously monitored quantum system prepared in an excited state will decay to its ground state with an abrupt jump. The jump occurs stochastically on a characteristic time scale T1, the lifetime of the excited state. These quantum jumps, originally envisioned by Bohr, have been observed in trapped atoms and ions, single molecules, photons, and single electrons in cyclotrons. Here we report the first observation of quantum jumps in a macroscopic quantum system, in our case a superconducting "artificial atom" or quantum bit (qubit) coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity. We use a fast, ultralow-noise parametric amplifier to amplify the microwave photons used to probe the qubit state, enabling continuous high-fidelity monitoring of the qubit. This technique represents a major step forward for solid state quantum information processing, potentially enabling quantum error correction and feedback, which are essential for building a quantum computer. Our technology can also be readily integrated into hybrid circuits involving molecular magnets, nitrogen vacancies in diamond, or semiconductor quantum dots.

Abstract:
An atom in open space can be detected by means of resonant absorption and reemission of electromagnetic waves, known as resonance fluorescence, which is a fundamental phenomenon of quantum optics. We report on the observation of scattering of propagating waves by a single artificial atom. The behavior of the artificial atom, a superconducting macroscopic two-level system, is in a quantitative agreement with the predictions of quantum optics for a pointlike scatterer interacting with the electromagnetic field in one-dimensional open space. The strong atom-field interaction as revealed in a high degree of extinction of propagating waves will allow applications of controllable artificial atoms in quantum optics and photonics.

Abstract:
Coherent dynamics of atomic matter waves in a standing-wave laser field is studied. In the dressed-state picture, wave packets of ballistic two-level atoms propagate simultaneously in two optical potentials. The probability to make a transition from one potential to another one is maximal when centroids of wave packets cross the field nodes and is given by a simple formula with the single exponent, the Landau--Zener parameter $\kappa$. If $\kappa \gg 1$, the motion is essentially adiabatic. If $\kappa \ll 1$, it is (almost) resonant and periodic. If $\kappa \simeq 1$, atom makes nonadiabatic transitions with a splitting of its wave packet at each node and strong complexification of the wave function as compared to the two other cases. This effect is referred as nonadiabatic quantum chaos. Proliferation of wave packets at $\kappa \simeq 1$ is shown to be connected closely with chaotic center-of-mass motion in the semiclassical theory of point-like atoms with positive values of the maximal Lyapunov exponent. The quantum-classical correspondence established is justified by the fact that the Landau--Zener parameter $\kappa$ specifies the regime of the semiclassical dynamical chaos in the map simulating chaotic center-of-mass motion. Manifestations of nonadiabatic quantum chaos are found in the behavior of the momentum and position probabilities.

Abstract:
We study a fermionic atom optics counterpart of parametric down-conversion with photons. This can be realized through dissociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of molecular dimers consisting of fermionic atoms. We present a theoretical model describing the quantum dynamics of dissociation and find analytic solutions for mode occupancies and atomic pair correlations, valid in the short time limit. The solutions are used to identify upper bounds for the correlation functions, which are applicable to any fermionic system and correspond to ideal particle number-difference squeezing

Abstract:
A theory for stabilization of quantum resonances by a mechanism similar to one leading to classical resonances in nonlinear systems is presented. It explains recent surprising experimental results, obtained for cold Cesium atoms when driven in the presence of gravity, and leads to further predictions. The theory makes use of invariance properties of the system, that are similar to those of solids, allowing for separation into independent kicked rotor problems. The analysis relies on a fictitious classical limit where the small parameter is {\em not} Planck's constant, but rather the detuning from the frequency that is resonant in absence of gravity.

Abstract:
Relative phase is treated as a physical quantity for two mode systems in quantum atom optics, adapting the Pegg-Barnett treatment of quantum optical phase to define a linear Hermitian relative phase operator via first introducing a complete orthonormal set of relative phase eigenstates. These states are contrasted with other so-called phase states. Other approaches to treating phase and previous attempts to find a Hermitian phase operator are discussed. The relative phase eigenstate has maximal two mode entanglement, it is a fragmented state with its Bloch vector lying inside the Bloch sphere and is highly spin squeezed. The relative phase states are applied to describing interferometry experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), particularly in the context of a proposed Heisenberg limited interferometry experiment. For a relative phase eigenstate the fractional fluctuation in one spin operator component perpendicular to the Bloch vector is essentially only of order 1/N, so if such a highly spin squeezed state could be prepared it may be useful for Heisenberg limited interferometry. An approach for preparing a BEC in a state close to a relative phase state is suggested, based on adiabatically changing parameters in the Josephson Hamiltonian starting from a suitable energy eigenstate in the Rabi regime.

Abstract:
We examine quantum statistics of optical photons emitted from atomic ensembles which are classically driven and simultaneously coupled to a two-level atom via microwave photon exchange. Quantum statistics and correlations are analyzed by calculating second order coherence degree, von Neumann entropy, spin squeezing for multi-particle entanglement, as well as genuine two and three-mode entanglement parameters for steady state and non-equilibrium situations. Coherent transfer of population between the radiation modes and quantum state mapping between the two-level atom and the optical modes are discussed. A potential experimental realization of the theoretical results in a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator containing diamond crystals with Nitrogen-Vacancy color centers and a superconducting artificial two-level atom is discussed.

Abstract:
We have investigated the cross Kerr phase shift of propagating microwave fields strongly coupled to an artificial atom. The artificial atom is a superconducting transmon qubit in an open transmission line. We demonstrate average phase shifts of 11 degrees per photon between two coherent microwave fields both at the single-photon level. At high control power, we observe phase shifts up to 30 degrees. Our results provide an important step towards quantum gates with propagating photons in the microwave regime.