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The Milky Way - Pulsars and Isolated Neutron Stars  [PDF]
W. Becker,G. G. Pavlov
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: CONTENTS The Milky Way -- Pulsars and Isolated Neutron Stars / Introduction: Historical Overview / Physics and Astrophysics of Isolated Neutron Stars / Rotation-powered Pulsars: The Magnetic Braking Model / High-energy Emission Models / Magnetospheric Emission Models / Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars / Photospheric Emission from Cooling Neutron Stars / The Current Picture of High-Energy Emission Properties of Isolated Neutron Stars / Young Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants / Crab-like Pulsars / Vela-like pulsars / Radio-silent Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants / Anomalous X-ray Pulsars and Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters / Thermal Emission from Middle-Aged Pulsars / Old Nearby Radio Pulsars / Isolated Radio-quiet Neutron Stars / Recycled Millisecond Pulsars / Impressive Achievements and Great Expectations / References
Pulsars as Fantastic Objects and Probes  [PDF]
J. L. Han
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8868-1_7
Abstract: Pulsars are fantastic objects, which show the extreme states of matters and plasma physics not understood yet. Pulsars can be used as probes for the detection of interstellar medium and even the gravitational waves. Here I review the basic facts of pulsars which should attract students to choose pulsar studies as their future projects.
The LEAP of Pulsars in the Milky Way  [PDF]
M. M. McKinnon
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3506073
Abstract: The location of objects on the celestial sphere is a fundamental measurement in astronomy, and the distribution of these objects within the Milky Way is important for understanding their evolution as well as the large scale structure of the Galaxy. Here, physical concepts in Galactic astronomy are illustrated using straightforward mathematics and simplifying assumptions regarding the geometry of the Galaxy. Specifically, an analytical model for a smooth distribution of particles in an oblate ellipsoid is used to replicate the observed distributions of the Galactic coordinates for pulsars and supernova remnants. The distributions and the Lambert equal area projections (LEAPs) of the coordinates suggest that the dominant factors determining the general shape of the distributions are the heavy concentration of objects in the Galactic plane and the offset of the Galactic center from the coordinate system origin. The LEAPs and the distributions also show that the dispersion of pulsars about and along the plane are much larger than that for their progenitor supernovae. Additionally, the model can be used to derive an analytical expression for the dispersion measure along any line of sight within the Galaxy. The expression is used to create a hypothetical dispersion measure-distance map for pulsars in the Galaxy.
Magnetic fields in our Milky Way Galaxy and nearby galaxies  [PDF]
JinLin Han
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921313002561
Abstract: Magnetic fields in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies have been revealed by starlight polarization, polarized emission from dust grains and clouds at millimeter and submillimeter wavelength, the Zeeman effect of spectral lines or maser lines from clouds or clumps, diffuse radio synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons in interstellar magnetic fields, and the Faraday rotation of background radio sources as well as pulsars for our Milky Way. It is easy to get a global structure for magnetic fields in nearby galaxies, while we have observed many details of magnetic fields in our Milky Way, especially by using pulsar rotation measure data. In general, magnetic fields in spiral galaxies probably have a large-scale structure. The fields follow the spiral arms with or without the field direction reversals. In the halo of spiral galaxies magnetic fields exist and probably also have a large-scale structure as toroidal and poloidal fields, but seem to be slightly weaker than those in the disk. In the central region of some galaxies, poloidal fields have been detected as vertical components. Magnetic field directions in galaxies seem to have been preserved during cloud formation and star formation, from large-scale diffuse interstellar medium to molecular clouds and then to the cloud cores in star formation regions or clumps for the maser spots. Magnetic fields in galaxies are passive to dynamics.
The spiral structure of our Milky Way  [PDF]
L. G. Hou,J. L. Han
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921313000665
Abstract: The spiral structure of our Milky Way has not yet been well outlined. HII regions, giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and 6.7-GHz methanol masers are primary tracers for spiral arms. We collect and update the database of these tracers which has been used in Hou, Han & Shi (2009) for mapping the spiral structure.
Millisecond Pulsars as Probes of Mass Segregation in the Galactic Center  [PDF]
Julio Chaname,Andrew Gould
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/339938
Abstract: We propose a simple test for the existence of a cluster of black hole remnants around Sgr A* that is based on a small sample of any type of Galactic Center objects, provided they are substantially less massive than the black holes and constitute part of an old (> 1 Gyr) population. The test relies on the fact that, under the presence of such a cluster of heavy remnants and because of energy equipartition, lower mass objects would be expelled from the central regions and settle into a distribution very different than the cusp expected to be induced by the supermassive black hole alone. We show that with a sample of just 50 objects and using only their angular positions on the sky relative to Sgr A* it is possible to clearly differentiate between a distribution consistent with the presence of the cluster of black holes and a power-law cusp distribution. We argue that millisecond pulsars might currently be the best candidate to perform this test, because of the large uncertainties involved in the age determination of less exotic objects. In addition, by measuring their first and second period derivatives, millisecond pulsars offer the rare opportunity of determining the complete phase space information of the objects. We show that this extra information improves the detection of mass segregation by about 30%.
Table of Contents of: "Red Giants as Probes of the Structure and Evolution of the Milky Way"  [PDF]
Andrea Miglio,Josefina Montalban,Arlette Noels
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We give here the Table of Contents of the proceedings from the workshop "Red Giants as Probes of the Structure and Evolution of the Milky Way", held in Roma, 15-17 November 2010. Exciting results are blooming, thanks to a convergence between unprecedented asteroseismic data obtained by the satellites CoRoT and Kepler, and state-of-the-art models of the internal structure of red giants and of galactic evolution. The pulsation properties now available for thousands of red giants promise to add valuable and independent constraints to current models of structure and evolution of our galaxy. Such a close connection between these domains opens a new very promising gate in our understanding of stars and galaxies. Scientists specialised in galactic evolution, in stellar structure, and in asteroseismology, gathered together in this workshop to discuss the current status and uncertainties involved in modelling the structure and evolution of red giants, as well as open questions regarding the study of stellar populations in the Milky Way.
Cosmic Rays from Pulsars and Magnetars  [PDF]
Jeremy S. Heyl,Ramandeep Gill,Lars Hernquist
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2010.00874.x
Abstract: We compare the expected abundance of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from pulsars and magnetars. We assume that the distribution of infant pulsars and magnetars follows that of high-mass stars in the Milky Way and that the production rate of cosmic rays is proportional to the spin-down and magnetic-decay power of pulsars and magnetars, respectively. In combination with primary and secondary cosmic-ray leptons from other sources (especially supernova remnants), we find that both magnetars and pulsars can easily account for the observed cosmic-ray spectrum, in particular the dip seen by HESS at several TeV and the increase in positron fraction found by PAMELA.
The spiral structure of our Milky Way Galaxy  [PDF]
L. G. Hou,J. L. Han,W. B. Shi
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200809692
Abstract: The spiral structure of our Milky Way Galaxy is not yet known. HII regions and giant molecular clouds are the most prominent spiral tracers. We collected the spiral tracer data of our Milky Way from the literature, namely, HII regions and giant molecular clouds (GMCs). With weighting factors based on the excitation parameters of HII regions or the masses of GMCs, we fitted the distribution of these tracers with models of two, three, four spiral-arms or polynomial spiral arms. The distances of tracers, if not available from stellar or direct measurements, were estimated kinetically from the standard rotation curve of Brand & Blitz (1993) with $R_0$=8.5 kpc, and $\Theta_0$=220 km s$^{-1}$ or the newly fitted rotation curves with $R_0$=8.0 kpc and $\Theta_0$=220 km s$^{-1}$ or $R_0$=8.4 kpc and $\Theta_0$=254 km s$^{-1}$. We found that the two-arm logarithmic model cannot fit the data in many regions. The three- and the four-arm logarithmic models are able to connect most tracers. However, at least two observed tangential directions cannot be matched by the three- or four-arm model. We composed a polynomial spiral arm model, which can not only fit the tracer distribution but also match observed tangential directions. Using new rotation curves with $R_0$=8.0 kpc and $\Theta_0$=220 km s$^{-1}$ and $R_0$=8.4 kpc and $\Theta_0$=254 km s$^{-1}$ for the estimation of kinematic distances, we found that the distribution of HII regions and GMCs can fit the models well, although the results do not change significantly compared to the parameters with the standard $R_0$ and $\Theta_0$.
An Eclectic View of our Milky Way Galaxy  [PDF]
David G. Turner
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1139/cjp-2013-0429
Abstract: The nature of our Milky Way Galaxy is reexamined from an eclectic point of view. Evidence for a central bar, for example, is not reflected in the distribution of RR Lyrae variables in the central bulge [4,5], and it is not clear if either a 2-armed or 4-armed spiral pattern is appropriate for the spiral arms. Radial velocity mapping of the Galaxy using radio H I, H II, or CO observations is compromised by the assumptions adopted for simple Galactic rotation. The Sun's local standard of rest (LSR) velocity is $\sim 14$ km s$^{-1}$ rather than 20 km s$^{-1}$, the local circular velocity is $251 \pm 9$ km s$^{-1}$ rather than 220 km s$^{-1}$, and young groups of stars exhibit a 10--20 km s$^{-1}$ "kick" relative to what is expected from Galactic rotation. By implication, the same may be true for star-forming gas clouds affected by the Galaxy's spiral density wave, raising concerns about their use for mapping spiral arms. Proper motion data in conjunction with the newly-estimated velocity components for the Sun's motion imply a distance to the Galactic centre of $R_0=8.34\pm0.27$ kpc, consistent with recent estimates which average $8.24\pm0.09$ kpc. A cosinusoidal Galactic potential is not ruled out by observations of open star clusters. The planetary nebula cluster Bica 6, for example, has a near-escape orbit for a Newtonian potential, but a near-normal orbit in a cosinusoidal potential field. The nearby cluster Collinder 464 also displays unusually large tidal effects consistent with those expected for a cosinusoidal potential. A standard Newtonian version of the Virial Theorem for star clusters yields very reasonable masses ($\sim 3 \times 10^{11}M_{\odot}$ and $\sim 4 \times 10^{11}M_{\odot}$) for the Milky Way and M31 subgroups of the Local Group, respectively. A cosinusoidal relation should yield identical results.
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