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Natal Kicks of Stellar-Mass Black Holes by Asymmetric Mass Ejection in Fallback Supernovae  [PDF]
H. -Thomas Janka
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1106
Abstract: Integrating trajectories of low-mass X-ray binaries containing black holes within the Galactic potential, Repetto, Davies & Sigurdsson recently showed that the large distances of some systems above the Galactic plane can only be explained if black holes receive appreciable natal kicks. Surprisingly, they found that the distribution of black hole kick velocities (rather than that of the momenta) should be similar to that of neutron stars. Here I argue that this result can be understood if neutron star and black hole kicks are a consequence of large-scale asymmetries created in the supernova ejecta by the explosion mechanism. The corresponding anisotropic gravitational attraction of the asymmetrically expelled matter does not only accelerate new-born neutron stars by the "gravitational tug-boat mechanism". It can also lead to delayed black-hole formation by asymmetric fallback of the slowest parts of the initial ejecta onto the transiently existing neutron star, in course of which the momentum of the black hole can grow with the fallback mass. Black hole kick velocities will therefore not be reduced by the ratio of neutron star to black hole mass as would be expected for kicks caused by anisotropic neutrino emission of the nascent neutron star.
Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae  [PDF]
C. J. Horowitz,Gang Li
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.5198
Abstract: Core collapse supernovae are dominated by energy transport from neutrinos. Therefore, some supernova properties could depend on symetries and features of the standard model weak interactions. The cross section for neutrino capture is larger than that for antineutrino capture by one term of order the neutrino energy over the nucleon mass. This reduces the ratio of neutrons to protons in the $\nu$-driven wind above a protoneutron star by approximately 20 % and may significantly hinder r-process nucleosynthesis.
Observational Constraints on Kicks in Supernovae  [PDF]
Simon Portegies Zwart,Marco Kouwenhoven,Alastair Reynolds
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: The absence or presence of extremely wide binaries with a radio pulsar and an optical counterpart imposes a strong constraint on the existence and magnitude of kicks in supernova explosions. We search for such systems by comparing the positions of radio pulsars which are not known to be in binaries with the positions of visible stars, and find that the number of associations is negligible. According to the performed population synthesis, this implies that kicks must occur, with a lower limit of at least 10 to 20 km/s.
Core-Collapse Supernovae and Neutron Star Kicks  [PDF]
Dong Lai
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Recent observations have revealed many new puzzles related to core-collapse supernovae, including the formation of magnetars and black holes and their possible GRB connections. We review our current understanding of the origin of pulsar kicks and supernova asymmetry. It is argued that neutron star kicks are intimately connected to the other fundamental parameters of young neutron stars, such as the initial spin and magnetic field strength.
Entanglement enhancement for two spins assisted by two phase kicks  [PDF]
Gennadiy Burlak,Isabel Sainz,Andrei B. Klimov
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.80.024301
Abstract: We study the entanglement dynamics in a two-spin system governed by a bilinear Hamiltonian and assisted by phase kicks. It is found that the application of instant kicks to both spins at some specific moments leads to enhancement of entanglement. This procedure also improves the transient character of entanglement leading, for large spins, to a formation of a plateau for the I-concurrence. We have numerically investigated the spin-spin dynamics for several values of spins and observed a substantial enhancement of entanglement in comparison to the evolution without kicks.
Neutron Star Kicks and Asymmetric Supernovae  [PDF]
Dong Lai
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Observational advances over the last decade have left little doubt that neutron stars received a large kick velocity (of order a few hundred to a thousand km/s) at birth. The physical origin of the kicks and the related supernova asymmetry is one of the central unsolved mysteries of supernova research. We review the physics of different kick mechanisms, including hydrodynamically driven, neutrino -- magnetic field driven, and electromagnetically driven kicks. The viabilities of the different kick mechanisms are directly related to the other key parameters characterizing nascent neutron stars, such as the initial magnetic field and the initial spin. Recent observational constraints on kick mechanisms are also discussed.
Nucleosynthesis Basics and Applications to Supernovae  [PDF]
F. -K. Thielemann,T. Rauscher,C. Freiburghaus,K. Nomoto,M. Hashimoto,B. Pfeiffer,K. -L. Kratz
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: This review concentrates on nucleosynthesis processes in general and their applications to massive stars and supernovae. A brief initial introduction is given to the physics in astrophysical plasmas which governs composition changes. We present the basic equations for thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear reaction networks. The required nuclear physics input for reaction rates is discussed, i.e. cross sections for nuclear reactions, photodisintegrations, electron and positron captures, neutrino captures, inelastic neutrino scattering, and beta-decay half-lives. We examine especially the present state of uncertainties in predicting thermonuclear reaction rates, while the status of experiments is discussed by others in this volume (see M. Wiescher). It follows a brief review of hydrostatic burning stages in stellar evolution before discussing the fate of massive stars, i.e. the nucleosynthesis in type II supernova explosions (SNe II). Except for SNe Ia, which are explained by exploding white dwarfs in binary stellar systems (which will not be discussed here), all other supernova types seem to be linked to the gravitational collapse of massive stars (M$>$8M$_\odot$) at the end of their hydrostatic evolution. SN1987A, the first type II supernova for which the progenitor star was known, is used as an example for nucleosynthesis calculations. Finally, we discuss the production of heavy elements in the r-process up to Th and U and its possible connection to supernovae.
Nucleosynthesis in Type Ia Supernovae  [PDF]
K. Nomoto,K. Iwamoto,N. Nakasato,F. -K. Thielemann,F. Brachwitz,T. Tsujimoto,Y. Kubo,N. Kishimoto
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00291-1
Abstract: Among the major uncertainties involved in the Chandrasekhar mass models for Type Ia supernovae are the companion star of the accreting white dwarf (or the accretion rate that determines the carbon ignition density) and the flame speed after ignition. We present nucleosynthesis results from relatively slow deflagration (1.5 - 3 % of the sound speed) to constrain the rate of accretion from the companion star. Because of electron capture, a significant amount of neutron-rich species such as ^{54}Cr, ^{50}Ti, ^{58}Fe, ^{62}Ni, etc. are synthesized in the central region. To avoid the too large ratios of ^{54}Cr/^{56}Fe and ^{50}Ti/^{56}Fe, the central density of the white dwarf at thermonuclear runaway must be as low as \ltsim 2 \e9 \gmc. Such a low central density can be realized by the accretion as fast as $\dot M \gtsim 1 \times 10^{-7} M_\odot yr^{-1}$. These rapidly accreting white dwarfs might correspond to the super-soft X-ray sources.
Nucleosynthesis in Type II Supernovae  [PDF]
K. Nomoto,M. Hashimoto,T. Tsujimoto,F. -K. Thielemann,N. Kishimoto,Y. Kubo
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00076-6
Abstract: Presupernova evolution and explosive nucleosynthesis in massive stars for main-sequence masses from 13 $M_\odot$ to 70 $M_\odot$ are calculated. We examine the dependence of the supernova yields on the stellar mass, $^{12}C(\alpha, \gamma) ^{16}O}$ rate, and explosion energy. The supernova yields integrated over the initial mass function are compared with the solar abundances.
Pulsar Jets: Implications for Neutron Star Kicks and Initial Spins  [PDF]
Dong Lai,David F. Chernoff,James M. Cordes
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/319455
Abstract: We study implications for the apparent alignment of the spin axes, proper-motions, and polarization vectors of the Crab and Vela pulsars. The spin axes are deduced from recent Chandra X-ray Observatory images that reveal jets and nebular structure having definite symmetry axes. The alignments indicate these pulsars were born either in isolation or with negligible velocity contributions from binary motions. We examine the effects of rotation and the conditions under which spin-kick alignment is produced for various models of neutron star kicks. If the kick is generated when the neutron star first forms by asymmetric mass ejection or/and neutrino emission, then the alignment requires that the protoneutron star possesses an original spin with period $P_s$ much less than the kick timescale, thus spin-averaging the kick forces. The kick timescale ranges from 100 ms to 10 s depending on whether the kick is hydrodynamically driven or neutrino-magnetic field driven. For hydrodynamical models, spin-kick alignment further requires the rotation period of an asymmetry pattern at the radius near shock breakout (>100 km) to be much less than ~100 ms; this is difficult to satisfy unless rotation plays a dynamically important role in the core collapse and explosion ($P_s\lo 1$ ms). Aligned kick and spin vectors are inherent to the slow process of asymmetric electromagnetic radiation from an off-centered magnetic dipole. We reassess the viability of this effect, correcting a factor of 4 error in Harrison and Tademaru's calculation that increases the size of the effect. To produce a kick velocity of order a few hundred km/s requires that the neutron star be born with an initial spin close to 1 ms and that spindown due to r-mode driven gravitational radiation be inefficient compared to standard magnetic braking.
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