Abstract:
Quantum interferometry uses quantum resources to improve phase estimation with respect to classical methods. Here we propose and theoretically investigate a new quantum interferometric scheme based on three-dimensional waveguide devices. These can be implemented by femtosecond laser waveguide writing, recently adopted for quantum applications. In particular, multiarm interferometers include "tritter" and "quarter" as basic elements, corresponding to the generalization of a beam splitter to a 3- and 4-port splitter, respectively. By injecting Fock states in the input ports of such interferometers, fringe patterns characterized by nonclassical visibilities are expected. This enables outperforming the quantum Fisher information obtained with classical fields in phase estimation. We also discuss the possibility of achieving the simultaneous estimation of more than one optical phase. This approach is expected to open new perspectives to quantum enhanced sensing and metrology performed in integrated photonic.

Abstract:
New quantum degrees of freedom of space-time, originating at the Planck scale, could create a coherent indeterminacy and noise in the transverse position of massive bodies on macroscopic scales. An experiment is under development at Fermilab designed to detect or rule out a transverse position noise with Planck spectral density, using correlated signals from an adjacent pair of Michelson interferometers. A detection would open an experimental window on quantum space-time.

Abstract:
Inspired by recent experiments with cold atoms in optical lattices, we consider a St\"uckelberg interferometer for a particle performing Bloch oscillations in a tight-binding model on the honeycomb lattice. The interferometer is made of two avoided crossings at the saddle points of the band structure (i.e. at M points of the reciprocal space). This problem is reminiscent of the double Dirac cone St\"uckelberg interferometer that was recently studied in the continuum limit [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 155302 (2014)]. Although the two problems share similarities -- such as the appearance of a geometric phase shift -- lattice effects, not captured by the continuum limit, make them truly different. The particle dynamics in the presence of a force is described by the Bloch Hamiltonian $H(\boldsymbol{k})$ defined from the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the position operator. This leads to many interesting effects for the lattice St\"uckelberg interferometer: a twisting of the two Landau-Zener tunnelings, saturation of the inter-band transition probability in the sudden (infinite force) limit and extended periodicity or even non-periodicity beyond the first Brillouin zone. In particular, St\"uckelberg interferometry gives access to the overlap matrix of cell-periodic Bloch states thereby allowing to fully characterize the geometry of Bloch states, as e.g. to obtain the quantum metric tensor.

Abstract:
We report the first experimental demonstration of even-order aberration cancellation in quantum interferometry. The effect is a spatial counterpart of the spectral group velocity dispersion cancellation, which is associated with spectral entanglement. It is manifested in temporal interferometry by virtue of the multi-parameter spatial-spectral entanglement. Spatially-entangled photons, generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion, were subjected to spatial aberrations introduced by a deformable mirror that modulates the wavefront. We show that only odd-order spatial aberrations affect the quality of quantum interference.

Abstract:
Recent experiments involving semiconducting quantum dots embedded in Aharonov-Bohm interferometry setups suggest that information concerning the phase of electron wavefunctions can be obtained from transport measurements. Here we review the basics of the theory of electron interferometry, some of the relevant experimental results, and recent theoretical developments attempting to shed light on the outstanding dilemmas.

Abstract:
This chapter reviews recent experiments on matter wave interferometry with large molecules. Starting from an elementary introduction to matter wave physics we discuss far-field diffraction and near-field interferometry with thermally excited many-body systems. We describe the constraints imposed by decoherence and dephasing effects, and present an outlook to the future challenges in macromolecule and cluster interferometry.

Abstract:
If scattering amplitudes are ordinary complex numbers (not quaternions) there is a universal algebraic relationship between the six coherent cross sections of any three scatterers (taken singly and pairwise). A violation of this relationship would indicate either that scattering amplitudes are quaternions, or that the superposition principle fails. Some possible experimental tests involve neutron interferometry, K_S-meson regeneration, and low energy proton-proton scattering.

Abstract:
In quantum interferometry, it is vital to control and utilize nonlinear interactions for achieving high-precision measurements. Attribute to their long coherent time and high controllability, ultracold atoms including Bose condensed atoms have been widely used for implementing quantum interferometry. Here, we review the recent progresses in theoretical studies of quantum interferometry with Bose condensed atoms. In particular, we focus on the nonlinear phenomena induced by the atom-atom interaction and how to control and utilize these nonlinear phenomena. Under the mean-field description, due to the atom-atom interaction, matter-wave solitons appear in the interference patterns, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping exists in the Bose-Josephson junctions. Under the many-body description, the atom-atom interaction can generate non-classical entanglement, which may be utilized to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the standard quantum limit.

Abstract:
The reduction paradigm of quantum interferometry is reanalyzed. In contrast to widespread opinion it is shown to be amenable to straightforward mathematical treatment within ``every-users'' simple-minded single particle quantum mechanics (without reduction postulate or the like), exploiting only its probabilistic content.

Abstract:
A Michelson interferometer with noise reduction to sub-shot noise levels is proposed and realized. Multiple measurements of a single signal beam are taken and the quantum property of light plays an essential role in the principle underlying this interferometry. The method makes use of the coherent state of light and requires only a simple modification to the standard Michelson interferometer. The surface fluctuation spectra of liquids are measured using this method down to a few orders of magnitude below the shot noise level. The spectrum derived from hydrodynamical considerations agrees well with the observed results for water. However, for oil, slight deviations are seen at high frequencies ($\gtrsim1\,$MHz), perhaps indicating its more complex underlying physics. The measurement requires a relatively low light power and a short time, so that it has a wide range of applicability.