Abstract:
We report on magneto-optical trapping of fermionic 53Cr atoms. A Zeeman-slowed atomic beam provides loading rates up to 3 10^6 /s. We present systematic characterization of the magneto-optical trap (MOT). We obtain up to 5 10^5 atoms in the steady state MOT. The atoms radiatively decay from the excited P state into metastable D states, and, due to the large dipolar magnetic moment of chromium atoms in these states, they can remain magnetically trapped in the quadrupole field gradient of the MOT. We study the accumulation of metastable 53Cr atoms into this magnetic trap. We also report on the first simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of bosonic 52Cr and fermionic 53Cr atoms. Finally, we characterize the light assisted collision losses in this Bose-Fermi cold mixture.

Abstract:
Cold atoms are traditionally trapped by the dipole force in periodically spaced potential wells induced by the standing laser field. We derive here a theory beyond the conventional dipole approximation which provides field/atom coupling potential terms that so far have not been taken into consideration in theoretical or experimental studies. We show that for some atoms for specific laser parameters despite the absence of dipole transition laser trapping is still possible due to the quadrupole force. Illustrative numerical calculations for Ca and Na trapped by the quadrupole force are given.

Abstract:
State-insensitive dipole trapping of multilevel atoms can be achieved by an appropriate choice of the wavelength of the trapping laser, so that the interaction with the different transitions results in equal AC Stark shifts for the ground and excited states of interest. However this approach is severely limited by the availability of coherent sources at the required wavelength and of appropriate power. This work investigates state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms for which the required wavelength of 935.6 nm is inconvenient in terms of experimental realization. Bichromatic state-insensitive trapping is proposed to overcome the lack of suitable laser sources. We first consider pairs of laser wavelengths in the ratio 1:2 and 1:3, as obtained via second- and third- harmonic generation. We found that the wavelength combinations 931.8-1863.6 nm and 927.5-2782.5 nm are suitable for state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms. In addition, we examine bichromatic state-insensitive trapping produced by pairs of laser wavelengths corresponding to currently available high power lasers. These wavelength pairs were found to be in the range of 585-588 nm and 623-629 for one laser and 1064-1080 nm for the other.

Abstract:
Magnetic trapping of bromine atoms at temperatures in the milliKelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br$_2$ molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are only lost by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.

Abstract:
We examine the properties of a quantum reflection trap when particle-interaction is included. We explore the influence of the particle-interaction on the trapping for different regimes: repulsive particle-interaction and attractive particle-interaction in its stable and unstable limit. With variational techniques, we calculate the phase-diagram of the quatum reflection trap and determine the stable and unstable regimes of the system.

Abstract:
By integrating the techniques of laser cooling and trapping with those of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), single Cesium atoms have been trapped within the mode of a small, high finesse optical cavity in a regime of strong coupling. The observed lifetime for individual atoms trapped within the cavity mode is $\tau \approx 28$ms, and is limited by fluctuations of light forces arising from the far-detuned intracavity field. This initial realization of trapped atoms in cavity QED should enable diverse protocols in quantum information science.

Abstract:
Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

Abstract:
We present a detailed analysis of the dynamical response of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice subjected to a periodic modulation of the lattice depth. Following the experimental realization by Stoferle et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 130403 (2004)] we study the excitation spectrum of the system as revealed by the response of the total energy as a function of the modulation frequency Omega. By using the Time Evolving Block Decimation algorithm, we are able to simulate one-dimensional systems comparable in size to those in the experiment, with harmonic trapping and across many lattice depths ranging from the Mott-insulator to the superfluid regime. Our results produce many of the features seen in the experiment, namely a broad response in the superfluid regime, and narrow discrete resonances in the Mott-insulator regime. We identify several signatures of the superfluid-Mott insulator transition that are manifested in the spectrum as it evolves from one limit to the other.

Abstract:
We have studied the atomic coherent population trapping in the system of a two-mode quantized field interacting with a Λ-configuration multilevel atom with one lower discrete state mad two sets of quasicontinuum states, or a set of quasicontinuum states and a set of true continuum states. The influence of the atom's initial preparation and the properties of the atomic upper levels on whether or not atomic coherent population trapping occurs, and the states of the field which trap the atom are analyzed.

Abstract:
We theoretically study the optical properties and the electronic structure of highly elongated quantum dots (quantum dashes) and show how geometrical fluctuations affect the excitonic spec- trum of the system. The dependence of the absorption intensities on the geometrical properties (depth and length) of the trapping center in a quantum dash is analyzed and the dependence of the degree of the linear polarization on these geometrical parameters is studied.