Abstract:
The stationary distribution of passive tracers chaotically advected by a two-dimensional large-scale flow is investigated. The tracer field is force by resetting the value of the tracer in certain localised regions. This problem is mathematically equivalent to advection in open flows and results in a fractal tracer structure. The spectral exponent of the tracer field is different from that for a passive tracer with the usual additive forcing (the so called Batchelor spectrum) and is related to the fractal dimension of the set of points that have never visited the forcing regions. We illustrate this behaviour by considering a time-periodic flow whose effect is equivalent to a simple two-dimensional area-preserving map. We also show that similar structure in the tracer field is found when the flow is aperiodic in time.

Abstract:
We compute the Hausdorff dimension of the "multiplicative golden mean shift" defined as the set of all reals in $[0,1]$ whose binary expansion $(x_k)$ satisfies $x_k x_{2k}=0$ for all $k\ge 1$, and show that it is smaller than the Minkowski dimension.

Abstract:
We consider subsets of the (symbolic) sequence space that are invariant under the action of the semigroup of multiplicative integers. A representative example is the collection of all 0-1 sequences $(x_k)$ such that $x_k x_{2k}=0$ for all $k$. We compute the Hausdorff and Minkowski dimensions of these sets and show that they are typically different. The proof proceeds via a variational principle for multiplicative subshifts.

Abstract:
In the moduli space $\mathcal{M}_d$ of degree $d$ rational maps, the bifurcation locus is the support of a closed $(1,1)$ positive current $T_\bif$ which is called the bifurcation current. This current gives rise to a measure $\mu_\bif:=(T_\bif)^{2d-2}$ whose support is the seat of strong bifurcations. Our main result says that $\supp(\mu_\bif)$ has maximal Hausdorff dimension $2(2d-2)$. As a consequence, the set of degree $d$ rational maps having $2d-2$ distinct neutral cycles is dense in a set of full Hausdorff dimension.

Abstract:
The most important characteristic of {\em multiplicative noise} is that its effects of system's dynamics depends on the recent system's state. Consideration of multiplicative noise on self-referential systems including biological and economical systems therefore is of importance. In this note we study an elementary example. While in a deterministic super critical pitchfork bifurcation with positive bifurcation parameter $\lambda$ the positive branch $\sqrt{\lambda}$ is stable, multiplicative white noise $\lambda_t ={\lambda} + \sigma \zeta_t$ on the unique parameter reduces stability in that the system's state tends to 0 almost surely, even for ${\lambda}>0$, while for 'small' noise $\sigma < \sqrt{2 \lambda}$ the point $\sqrt{\lambda-\sigma^2/2}$ is a meta-stable state. In this case, correspondingly, the system will 'die out', i.e. $X_t \to 0$ within finite time.

Abstract:
In an earlier work, joint with R. Kenyon, we computed the Hausdorff dimension of the "multiplicative golden mean shift" defined as the set of all reals in [0,1] whose binary expansion (x_k) satisfies x_k x_{2k}=0 for all k=1,2... Here we show that this set has infinite Hausdorff measure in its dimension. A more precise result in terms of gauges in which the Hausdorff measure is infinite is also obtained.

Abstract:
We consider the effect on tipping from an additive periodic forcing in a canonical model with a saddle node bifurcation and a slowly varying bifurcation parameter. Here tipping refers to the dramatic change in dynamical behavior characterized by a rapid transition away from a previously attracting state. In the absence of the periodic forcing, it is well-known that a slowly varying bifurcation parameter produces a delay in this transition, beyond the bifurcation point for the static case. Using a multiple scales analysis, we consider the effect of amplitude and frequency of the periodic forcing relative to the drifting rate of the slowly varying bifurcation parameter. We show that a high frequency oscillation drives an earlier tipping when the bifurcation parameter varies more slowly, with the advance of the tipping point proportional to the square of the ratio of amplitude to frequency. In the low frequency case the position of the tipping point is affected by the frequency, amplitude and phase of the oscillation. The results are based on an analysis of the local concavity of the trajectory, used for low frequencies both of the same order as the drifting rate of the bifurcation parameter and for low frequencies larger than the drifting rate. The tipping point location is advanced with increased amplitude of the periodic forcing, with critical amplitudes where there are jumps in the location, yielding significant advances in the tipping point. We demonstrate the analysis for two applications with saddle node-type bifurcations.

Abstract:
We have studied the dynamical properties of finite $N$-unit FitzHugh-Nagumo (FN) ensembles subjected to additive and/or multiplicative noises, reformulating the augmented moment method (AMM) with the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) method [H. Hasegawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. {\bf 75}, 033001 (2006)]. In the AMM, original $2N$-dimensional stochastic equations are transformed to eight-dimensional deterministic ones, and the dynamics is described in terms of averages and fluctuations of local and global variables. The stochastic bifurcation is discussed by a linear stability analysis of the {\it deterministic} AMM equations. The bifurcation transition diagram of multiplicative noise is rather different from that of additive noise: the former has the wider oscillating region than the latter. The synchronization in globally coupled FN ensembles is also investigated. Results of the AMM are in good agreement with those of direct simulations (DSs).

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the existence, stability and bifurcation of random complete and periodic solutions for stochastic parabolic equations with multiplicative noise. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of tempered random attractors for the stochastic equations and characterize the structures of the attractors by random complete solutions. We then examine the existence and stability of random complete quasi-solutions and establish the relations of these solutions and the structures of tempered attractors. When the stochastic equations are incorporated with periodic forcing, we obtain the existence and stability of random periodic solutions. For the stochastic Chafee-Infante equation, we further establish the multiplicity and stochastic bifurcation of complete and periodic solutions.

Abstract:
Let $M$ be a transitive model of $ZFC$ and let ${\bf B}$ be a $M$-complete Boolean algebra in $M.$ (In general a proper class.) We define a generalized notion of forcing with such Boolean algebras, $^*$forcing. (A $^*$ forcing extension of $M$ is a transitive set of the form $M[{\bf G}]$ where ${\bf G}$ is an $M$-complete ultrafilter on ${\bf B}.$) We prove that 1. If ${\bf G}$ is a $^*$forcing complete ultrafilter on ${\bf B},$ then $M[{\bf G}]\models ZFC.$ 2. Let $H\sub M.$ If there is a least transitive model $N$ such that $H\in M,$ $Ord^M=Ord^N,$ and $N\models ZFC,$ then we denote $N$ by $M[H].$ We show that all models of $ZFC$ of the form $M[H]$ are $^*$forcing extensions of $M.$ As an immediate corollary we get that $L[0^{\#}]$ is a $^*$forcing extension of $L.$