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Anelastic tidal dissipation in multi-layer planets  [PDF]
F. Remus,S. Mathis,J. -P. Zahn,V. Lainey
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201118595
Abstract: Earth-like planets have viscoelastic mantles, whereas giant planets may have viscoelastic cores. The tidal dissipation of such solid regions, gravitationally perturbed by a companion body, highly depends on their rheology and on the tidal frequency. Therefore, modelling tidal interactions presents a high interest to provide constraints on planets' properties and to understand their history and their evolution, in our Solar System or in exoplanetary systems. We examine the equilibrium tide in the anelastic parts of a planet whatever the rheology, taking into account the presence of a fluid envelope of constant density. We show how to obtain the different Love numbers that describe its tidal deformation. Thus, we discuss how the tidal dissipation in solid parts depends on the planet's internal structure and rheology. Finally, we show how the results may be implemented to describe the dynamical evolution of planetary systems. The first manifestation of the tide is to distort the shape of the planet adiabatically along the line of centers. Then, the response potential of the body to the tidal potential defines the complex Love numbers whose real part corresponds to the purely adiabatic elastic deformation, while its imaginary part accounts for dissipation. This dissipation is responsible for the imaginary part of the disturbing function, which is implemented in the dynamical evolution equations, from which we derive the characteristic evolution times. The rate at which the system evolves depends on the physical properties of tidal dissipation, and specifically on how the shear modulus varies with tidal frequency, on the radius and also the rheological properties of the solid core. The quantification of the tidal dissipation in solid cores of giant planets reveals a possible high dissipation which may compete with dissipation in fluid layers.
Calibration of Equilibrium Tide Theory for Extrasolar Planet Systems  [PDF]
Brad Hansen
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/723/1/285
Abstract: We provide an 'effective theory' of tidal dissipation in extrasolar planet systems by empirically calibrating a model for the equilibrium tide. The model is valid to high order in eccentricity and parameterised by two constants of bulk dissipation - one for dissipation in the planet and one for dissipation in the host star. We are able to consistently describe the distribution of extrasolar planetary systems in terms of period, eccentricity and mass (with a lower limit of a Saturn mass) with this simple model. Our model is consistent with the survival of short-period exoplanet systems, but not with the circularisation period of equal mass stellar binaries, suggesting that the latter systems experience a higher level of dissipation than exoplanet host stars. Our model is also not consistent with the explanation of inflated planetary radii as resulting from tidal dissipation. The paucity of short period planets around evolved A stars is explained as the result of enhanced tidal inspiral resulting from the increase in stellar radius with evolution.
Calibration of Equilibrium Tide Theory for Extrasolar Planet Systems II  [PDF]
Brad Hansen
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/6
Abstract: We present a new empirical calibration of equilibrium tidal theory for extrasolar planet systems, extending a prior study by incorporating detailed physical models for the internal structure of planets and host stars. The resulting strength of the stellar tide produces a coupling that is strong enough to reorient the spins of some host stars without causing catastrophic orbital evolution, thereby potentially explaining the observed trend in alignment between stellar spin and planetary orbital angular momentum. By isolating the sample whose spins should not have been altered in this model, we also show evidence for two different processes that contribute to the population of planets with short orbital periods. We apply our results to estimate the remaining lifetimes for short period planets, examine the survival of planets around evolving stars, and determine the limits for circularisation of planets with highly eccentric orbits. Our analysis suggests that the survival of circularised planets is strongly affected by the amount of heat dissipated, which is often large enough to lead to runaway orbital inflation and Roche lobe overflow.
The Occurrence and Architecture of Exoplanetary Systems  [PDF]
Joshua N. Winn,Daniel C. Fabrycky
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-astro-082214-122246
Abstract: The basic geometry of the Solar System -- the shapes, spacings, and orientations of the planetary orbits -- has long been a subject of fascination as well as inspiration for planet formation theories. For exoplanetary systems, those same properties have only recently come into focus. Here we review our current knowledge of the occurrence of planets around other stars, their orbital distances and eccentricities, the orbital spacings and mutual inclinations in multiplanet systems, the orientation of the host star's rotation axis, and the properties of planets in binary-star systems.
The equilibrium tide in stars and giant planets: I - the coplanar case  [PDF]
F. Remus,S. Mathis,J. -P. Zahn
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201118160
Abstract: Since 1995, more than 500 extrasolar planets have been discovered orbiting very close to their parent star, where they experience strong tidal interactions. Their orbital evolution depends on the physical mechanisms that cause tidal dissipation, and these are still not well understood. We refine the theory of the equilibrium tide in fluid bodies that are partly or entirely convective, to predict the dynamical evolution of the systems. In particular, we examine the validity of modeling the tidal dissipation by the quality factor Q, as is commonly done. We consider here the simplest case where the considered star or planet rotates uniformly, all spins are aligned, and the companion is reduced to a point-mass. The first manifestation of the tide is to distort the shape of the star or planet adiabatically along the line of centers. This generates the divergence-free velocity field of the adiabatic equilibrium tide which is decoupled from the dynamical tide. The tidal kinetic energy is dissipated into heat through turbulent friction, which is modeled here as an eddy-viscosity acting on the adiabatic tidal flow. This dissipation induces a second velocity field, the dissipative equilibrium tide, which is in quadrature with the exciting potential; it is responsible for the imaginary part of the disturbing function, which is implemented in the dynamical evolution equations, from which one derives characteristic evolution times. The rate at which the system evolves depends on the physical properties of tidal dissipation, and specifically on how the eddy viscosity varies with tidal frequency and on the thickness of the convective envelope for the fluid equilibrium tide. At low frequency, this tide retards by a constant time delay, whereas it lags by a constant angle when the tidal frequency exceeds the convective turnover rate.
Exoplanetary Atmospheres  [PDF]
Nikku Madhusudhan,Heather Knutson,Jonathan Fortney,Travis Barman
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816531240-ch032
Abstract: The study of exoplanetary atmospheres is one of the most exciting and dynamic frontiers in astronomy. Over the past two decades ongoing surveys have revealed an astonishing diversity in the planetary masses, radii, temperatures, orbital parameters, and host stellar properties of exoplanetary systems. We are now moving into an era where we can begin to address fundamental questions concerning the diversity of exoplanetary compositions, atmospheric and interior processes, and formation histories, just as have been pursued for solar system planets over the past century. Exoplanetary atmospheres provide a direct means to address these questions via their observable spectral signatures. In the last decade, and particularly in the last five years, tremendous progress has been made in detecting atmospheric signatures of exoplanets through photometric and spectroscopic methods using a variety of space-borne and/or ground-based observational facilities. These observations are beginning to provide important constraints on a wide gamut of atmospheric properties, including pressure-temperature profiles, chemical compositions, energy circulation, presence of clouds, and non-equilibrium processes. The latest studies are also beginning to connect the inferred chemical compositions to exoplanetary formation conditions. In the present chapter, we review the most recent developments in the area of exoplanetary atmospheres. Our review covers advances in both observations and theory of exoplanetary atmospheres, and spans a broad range of exoplanet types (gas giants, ice giants, and super-Earths) and detection methods (transiting planets, direct imaging, and radial velocity). We close with a discussion of the bright prospects for future studies of exoplanetary atmospheres.
Dead Zones and the Diversity of Exoplanetary Systems  [PDF]
Yasuhiro Hasegawa,Ralph E. Pudritz
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921311020667
Abstract: Planetary migration provides a theoretical basis for the observed diversity of exoplanetary systems. We demonstrate that dust settling - an inescapable feature of disk evolution - gives even more rapid type I migration by up to a factor of about 2 than occurs in disks with fully mixed dust. On the other hand, type II migration becomes slower by a factor of 2 due to dust settling. This even more problematic type I migration can be resolved by the presence of a dead zone; the inner, high density region of a disk which features a low level of turbulence. We show that enhanced dust settling in the dead zone leaves a dusty wall at its outer edge. Back-heating of the dead zone by this wall produces a positive radial gradient for the disk temperature, which acts as a barrier for type I migration.
Dynamics of exoplanetary systems, links to their habitability  [PDF]
Emeline Bolmont,Sean N. Raymond,Franck Selsis
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Our knowledge of planets' orbital dynamics, which was based on Solar System studies, has been challenged by the diversity of exoplanetary systems. Around cool and ultra cool dwarfs, the influence of tides on the orbital and spin evolution of planets can strongly affect their climate and their capacity to host surface liquid water. We illustrate the role of tides and dynamics with the extreme case of planets orbiting around brown dwarfs. In multiple planet systems, the eccentricity is excited by planet-planet interactions. Planets are therefore heated up from the inside by the tidally-induced friction. This process can heat a habitable zone planet to such a level that surface liquid water cannot exist. We also talk about the newly discovered potentially habitable Earth-sized planet Kepler-186f. Given the poorly estimated age of the system, the planet could still be evolving towards synchronization and have a high obliquity or be pseudo-synchronized with a zero obliquity. These two configurations would have a different effect on the climate of this planet.
Dynamical Constraints on Multi-Planet Exoplanetary Systems  [PDF]
Jonathan Horner,Robert A. Wittenmyer,Chris G. Tinney,Paul Robertson,Tobias C. Hinse,Jonathan P. Marshall
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: As a direct result of ongoing efforts to detect more exoplanetary systems, an ever-increasing number of multiple-planet systems are being announced. But how many of these systems are truly what they seem? In many cases, such systems are announced solely on the basis of orbital fits to observational data, and no attempt is made to see whether the proposed orbits are actually dynamically feasible. As a result, it is certain that planetary systems are being announced that involve planets moving on orbits that would be dynamically unstable on timescales of just a few hundred years. Here, we present the results of dynamical simulations that investigate the orbital stability and evolution of a number of recently discovered exoplanetary systems. These simulations have enabled us to create highly detailed dynamical maps of those systems, allowing us to better constrain the orbits of the planets contained therein. In some cases, our results have even led to the very existence of the planets themselves being called into question.
Solar System Moons as Analogs for Compact Exoplanetary Systems  [PDF]
Stephen R. Kane,Natalie R. Hinkel,Sean N. Raymond
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/146/5/122
Abstract: The field of exoplanetary science has experienced a recent surge of new systems that is largely due to the precision photometry provided by the Kepler mission. The latest discoveries have included compact planetary systems in which the orbits of the planets all lie relatively close to the host star, which presents interesting challenges in terms of formation and dynamical evolution. The compact exoplanetary systems are analogous to the moons orbiting the giant planets in our Solar System, in terms of their relative sizes and semi-major axes. We present a study that quantifies the scaled sizes and separations of the Solar System moons with respect to their hosts. We perform a similar study for a large sample of confirmed Kepler planets in multi-planet systems. We show that a comparison between the two samples leads to a similar correlation between their scaled sizes and separation distributions. The different gradients of the correlations may be indicative of differences in the formation and/or long-term dynamics of moon and planetary systems.
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