Abstract:
We explore how entanglement of a general bipartite system evolves when one subsystem undergoes the action of an arbitrary noisy channel. It is found that the dynamics of entanglement for general bipartite systems under the influence of such channel is determined by the channel's action on the maximally entangled state, which includes as a special case the results for two-qubit systems [Nature Physics 4, 99 (2008)]. In particular, for multi-qubit or qubit-qudit systems, we get a general factorization law for evolution equation of entanglement with one qubit being subject to a noisy channel. Our results can help the experimental characterization of entanglement dynamics.

Abstract:
We prove an upper bound proportional to the surface area for the bipartite entanglement of the ground state and thermal states of harmonic oscillator systems with disorder, as measured by the logarithmic negativity. Our assumptions are satisfied for some standard models that are almost surely gapless in the thermodynamic limit.

Abstract:
We derive a separability criterion for bipartite quantum systems which generalizes the already known criteria. It is based on observables having generic commutation relations. We then discuss in detail the relation among these criteria.

Abstract:
The effect of the control on bipartite entanglement is discussed from a geometric viewpoint for a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system as a model of the n-qubit control system. The Hamiltonian of the model is the sum of the drift and control Hamiltonians, each of which describes the interaction between pairs of qubits and between one of qubits and an external magnetic field, respectively. According to a bipartite partition, the Schroedinger equation for the NMR system is put in the matrix form. This paper gives a solution to the Schroedinger equation with the assumptions of small coupling among qubits and of constant controls. The solution is put in the form of power series in small parameters. In particular, in the case of the two-qubit NMR system, the drift and control Hamiltonians are shown to be coupled to work for entanglement promotion, by examining solutions to the Schroedinger equation in detail. The concurrence, a measure of entanglement, is evaluated along the solution for a small time interval in order to observe that the control effect appears, not at the first-order terms in t, but at the higher-order terms in t. The evaluated concurrence also suggests which control makes the two-qubit more entangled or less.

Abstract:
Linear and nonlinear entanglement witnesses for a given bipartite quantum systems are constructed. Using single particle feasible region, a way of constructing effective entanglement witnesses for bipartite systems is provided by exact convex optimization. Examples for some well known two qutrit quantum systems show these entanglement witnesses in most cases, provide necessary and sufficient conditions for separability of given bipartite system. Also this method is applied to a class of bipartite qudit quantum systems with details for d=3, 4 and 5. Keywords: non-linear and linear entanglement witnesses PACS number(s): 03.67.Mn, 03.65.Ud

Abstract:
In this thesis we study the behavior of bipartite entanglement of a large quantum system, by analyzing the distribution of the Schmidt coefficients of the reduced density matrix. Applying the general methods of classical statistical mechanics, we develop a canonical approach for the study of the distribution of these coefficients for a fixed value of the average entanglement. We introduce a partition function depending on a fictitious temperature, which localizes the measure on the set of states with higher and lower entanglement, if compared to typical (random) states with respect to the Haar measure. The purity of one subsystem, which is our entanglement measure/indicator, plays the role of energy in the partition function. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, we completely characterize the distribution of the purity and of the eigenvalues for pure states. The global picture unveils several locally stable solutions exchange stabilities, through the presence of first and second order phase transitions. We also detect the presence of metastable states. In the second part, we focus on mixed states. Through the same statistical approach, we determine the exact expression of the first two moments of the local purity and the high temperature expansion of the first moment. We also bridge our problem with the theory of quantum channels, more precisely we exploit the symmetry properties of the twirling transformations in order to compute the exact expression for the first moment of the local purity.

Abstract:
We consider a non-interacting bipartite quantum system $\mathcal H_S^A\otimes\mathcal H_S^B$ undergoing repeated quantum interactions with an environment modeled by a chain of independant quantum systems interacting one after the other with the bipartite system. The interactions are made so that the pieces of environment interact first with $\mathcal H_S^A$ and then with $\mathcal H_S^B$. Even though the bipartite systems are not interacting, the interactions with the environment create an entanglement. We show that, in the limit of short interaction times, the environment creates an effective interaction Hamiltonian between the two systems. This interaction Hamiltonian is explicitly computed and we show that it keeps track of the order of the successive interactions with $\mathcal H_S^A$ and $\mathcal H_S^B$. Particular physical models are studied, where the evolution of the entanglement can be explicitly computed. We also show the property of return of equilibrium and thermalization for a family of examples.

Abstract:
In this paper, an entanglement criterion for states in infinite dimensional bipartite quantum systems is presented. We generalize some of separability criterion that was recently introduced by Wu and Anandan in (Phys. Lett. A, 2002, 297, 4-8) to infinite dimensional bipartite quantum systems. In addition, we give an example aimed to illustrate the application of the theorem.

Abstract:
It is analytically shown that the asymptotic correlations in exactly solvable models following a quantum quench can behave essentially as thermal correlations provided the entanglement between two eigenmodes is sufficiently strong. We provide one example and one counter example of this observation. The example illustrates the fact that the thermal correlations arise from initial states where the entanglement between the eigenmodes stems from the existence of a large energy gap in the initial state. On the other hand, the counter-example shows that when the bi-partite entanglement of the eigenmodes stems from interactions that do not open a gap, the correlations at asymptotically long times are non-thermal. We also show that the thermal behavior concerns only the asymptotic correlation functions, as the difference with an actual thermal ensemble can be observed measuring the energy fluctuations of the system. The latter observation implies a breakdown of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem.

Abstract:
We present a scheme for generating entanglement between two spatially separated systems from the spatial entanglement generated by the interference effect during the evolution of a single-particle quantum walk. Any two systems which can interact with the spatial modes entangled during the walk evolution can be entangled using this scheme. A notable feature is the ability to control the quantum walk dynamics and its localization at desired pair lattice sites irrespective of separation distance resulting in a substantial control and improvement in the entanglement output. Implementation schemes to entangle spatially separated atoms using quantum walk on a single atom is also presented.