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Performances and stability of a 2.4 ton Gd organic liquid scintillator target for antineutrino detection  [PDF]
I. R. Barabanov,L. B. Bezrukov,C. Cattadori,N. A. Danilov,A. Di Vacri,Yu. S. Krilov,L. Ioannucci,E. A. Yanovich,M. Aglietta,A. Bonardi,G. Bruno,W. Fulgione,E. Kemp,A. S. Malguin,A. Porta,M. Selvi,for the LVD Collaboration
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/5/04/P04001
Abstract: In this work we report the performances and the chemical and physical properties of a (2 x 1.2) ton organic liquid scintillator target doped with Gd up to ~0.1%, and the results of a 2 year long stability survey. In particular we have monitored the amount of both Gd and primary fluor actually in solution, the optical and fluorescent properties of the Gd-doped liquid scintillator (GdLS) and its performances as a neutron detector, namely neutron capture efficiency and average capture time. The experimental survey is ongoing, the target being continuously monitored. After two years from the doping time the performances of the Gd-doped liquid scintillator do not show any hint of degradation and instability; this conclusion comes both from the laboratory measurements and from the "in-tank" measurements. This is the largest stable Gd-doped organic liquid scintillator target ever produced and continuously operated for a long period.
Light Collection and Pulse-Shape Discrimination in Elongated Scintillator Cells for the PROSPECT Reactor Antineutrino Experiment  [PDF]
J. Ashenfelter,B. Balantekin,H. R. Band,G. Barclay,C. D. Bass,D. Berish,N. S. Bowden,A. Bowes,J. P. Brodsky,C. D. Bryan,J. J. Cherwinka,R. Chu,T. Classen,K. Commeford,D. Davee,D. Dean,G. Deichert,M. V. Diwan,M. J. Dolinski,J. Dolph,D. A. Dwyer,J. K. Gaison,A. Galindo-Uribarri,K. Gilje,A. Glenn,B. W. Goddard,M. Green,K. Han,S. Hans,K. M. Heeger,B. Heffron,D. E. Jaffe,T. J. Langford,B. R. Littlejohn,D. A. Martinez Caicedo,R. D. McKeown,M. P. Mendenhall,P. Mueller,H. P. Mumm,J. Napolitano,R. Neilson,D. Norcini,D. Pushin,X. Qian,E. Romero,R. Rosero,L. Saldana,B. S. Seilhan,R. Sharma,S. Sheets,N. T Stemen,P. T. Surukuchi,R. L. Varner,B. Viren,W. Wang,B. White,C. White,J. Wilhelmi,C. Williams,T. Wise,H. Yao,M. Yeh,Y. -R. Yen,G. Zangakis,C. Zhang,X. Zhang
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A meter-long, 23-liter EJ-309 liquid scintillator detector has been constructed to study the light collection and pulse-shape discrimination performance of elongated scintillator cells for the PROSPECT reactor antineutrino experiment. The magnitude and uniformity of light collection and neutron/gamma discrimination power in the energy range of antineutrino inverse beta decay products have been studied using gamma and spontaneous fission calibration sources deployed along the cell long axis. We also study neutron-gamma discrimination and light collection abilities for differing PMT and reflector configurations. Key design features for optimizing MeV-scale response and background rejection capabilities are identified.
Antineutrino Geophysics with Liquid Scintillator Detectors  [PDF]
Casey G. Rothschild,Mark C. Chen,Frank P. Calaprice
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1029/98GL50667
Abstract: Detecting the antineutrinos emitted by the decay of radioactive elements in the mantle and crust could provide a direct measurement of the total abundance of uranium and thorium in the Earth. In calculating the antineutrino flux at specific sites, the local geology of the crust and the background from the world's nuclear power reactors are important considerations. Employing a global crustal map, with type and thickness data, and using recent estimates of the uranium and thorium distribution in the Earth, we calculate the antineutrino event rate for two new neutrino detectors. We show that spectral features allow terrestrial antineutrino events to be identified above reactor antineutrino backgrounds and that the uranium and thorium contributions can be separately determined.
Quest for double beta decay of 160-Gd and Ce isotopes  [PDF]
F. A. Danevich,V. V. Kobychev,O. A. Ponkratenko,V. I. Tretyak,Yu. G. Zdesenko
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(01)00983-6
Abstract: The double beta decay study of 160-Gd has been performed in the Solotvina Underground Laboratory with the help of Gd_2SiO_5(Ce) crystal scintillator (volume 95 cc). The background of the detector in the vicinity of the 2 beta energy of 160-Gd was reduced to 1.0 cpd/keV kg. The new improved half-life limits have been established for neutrinoless 2 beta decay of 160-Gd to the ground and first excited levels of 160-Dy: T1/2 > 2.3(1.3)E21 yr at 68%(90%) C.L. The T1/2 bounds have been also set for two neutrino mode as well as for 2 beta decay with Majorons emission. Also the limits were established for different 2 beta decay processes in 136-Ce, 138-Ce and 142-Ce.
Development of a Gd Loaded Liquid Scintillator for Electron Anti-Neutrino Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Andreas G. Piepke,S. Wayne Moser,Vladimir M. Novikov
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(99)00530-6
Abstract: We report on the development and deployment of 11.3 tons of 0.1% Gd loaded liquid scintillator used in the Palo Verde reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. We discuss the chemical composition, properties, and stability of the scintillator elaborating on the details of the scintillator preparation crucial for obtaining a good scintillator quality and stability.
Investigation of Large LGB Detectors for Antineutrino Detection  [PDF]
P. Nelson,N. S. Bowden
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.09.027
Abstract: A detector material or configuration that can provide an unambiguous indication of neutron capture can substantially reduce random coincidence backgrounds in antineutrino detection and capture-gated neutron spectrometry applications. Here we investigate the performance of such a material, a composite of plastic scintillator and $^6$Li$_6^{nat}$Gd$(^{10}$BO$_{3})_{3}$:Ce (LGB) crystal shards of ~1 mm dimension and comprising 1% of the detector by mass. While it is found that the optical propagation properties of this material as currently fabricated are only marginally acceptable for antineutrino detection, its neutron capture identification ability is encouraging.
Looking for antineutrino flux from $^{40}$K with large liquid scintillator detector  [PDF]
V. V. Sinev,L. B. Bezrukov,E. A. Litvinovich,I. N. Machulin,M. D. Skorokhvatov,S. V. Sukhotin
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1134/S1063779615020173
Abstract: We regard the possibility of detecting the antineutrino flux producing by the $^{40}$K placing inside the Earth. Thermal flux of the Earth could be better understood with observing such a flux. Lower and upper limitations on the $^{40}$K antineutrino flux are presented.
Optimization of plastic scintillator thicknesses for online beta/gamma detection  [cached]
Pourtangestani K.,Machrafi R.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20122407010
Abstract: For efficient beta detection in a mixed beta gamma field, Monte Carlo simulation models have been built to optimize the thickness of a plastic scintillator, used in a whole body monitor. The simulation has been performed using the MCNP/X code for different thicknesses of plastic scintillator from 150 μm to 600 μm. The relationship between the thickness of the scintillator and the efficiency of the detector has been analyzed. For 150 μm thickness, an experimental investigation has been conducted with different beta sources at different positions on the scintillator and the counting efficiency of the unit has been measured. Evaluated data along with experimental ones have been discussed. A thickness of 300 μm to 500 μm has been found to be the optimum thickness for high efficiency beta detection in the presence of low energy gamma-rays.
Directional Antineutrino Detection  [PDF]
Benjamin R. Safdi,Burkhant Suerfu
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.071802
Abstract: We propose the first truly directional antineutrino detector for antineutrinos above the hydrogen inverse beta decay (IBD) threshold, with potential applications including monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation, spatially mapping geo-neutrinos, characterizing the diffuse supernova neutrino background, and searching for new physics in the neutrino sector. The detector consists of adjacent and separated target and capture scintillator planes. IBD events take place in the target layers, which are thin enough to allow the neutrons to escape without scattering elastically. The neutrons are detected in the thicker, boron-loaded capture layers. The location of the IBD event and the momentum of the positron are determined by tracking the positron's trajectory through the detector. Our design is a straightforward modification of existing antineutrino detectors; a prototype could be built with existing technology.
Predicting Reactor Antineutrino Emissions Using New Precision Beta Spectroscopy  [PDF]
D. Asner,K. A. Burns,B. Greenfield,M. S. Kos,J. L. Orrell,M. Schram,B. A. VanDevender,D. Wootan
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: A conceptual experimental method for providing a new measurement of the underlying beta decay spectra from fission products is presented. The goal is to provide additional information related to the prediction of the antineutrino emission spectra from fission reactors and assist evaluation of the reactor neutrino anomaly.
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