Abstract:
Using a phenomenological Hamiltonian, we investigate the quasiparticle lifetimes and dispersions in the three low energy bands, gamma, beta, and alpha of Sr2RuO4. Couplings in the Hamiltonian are fixed so as to produce the mass renormalization as measured in magneto-oscillation experiments. We thus find reasonable agreement in all bands between our computed lifetimes and those measured in ARPES experiments by Kidd et al. [1] and Ingle et al. [2]. In comparing computed to measured quasiparticle dispersions, we however find good agreement in the alpha-band alone.

Abstract:
Femtosecond time-resolved photoemission of photoexcited electrons in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) provides strong evidence for anisotropies of quasiparticle (QP) lifetimes. Indicative of such anisotropies is a pronounced anomaly in the energy dependence of QP lifetimes between 1.1 eV and 1.5 eV - the vicinity of a saddle point in the graphite bandstructure. This is supported by recent ab initio calculations and a comparison with experiments on defect-enriched HOPG which reveal that disorder, e.g. defects or phonons, increases electron energy relaxation rates.

Abstract:
We compute the spectral density in the normal phase of an interacting homogenous Fermi gas using a T-matrix approximation. We fit the quasiparticle peaks of the spectral density to BCS-like dispersion relations, and extract estimates of a "pseudo-gap" energy scale and an effective Fermi-wavevector as a function of interaction strength. We find that the effective Fermi-wavevector of the quasiparticles vanishes when the inverse scattering length exceeds some positive threshold. We also find that near unitarity the quasiparticle lifetimes, estimated from the widths of the peaks in the spectral density, approach values on the order of the inverse Fermi-energy. These results are consistent with the "breakdown of Fermi liquid theory" observed in recent experiments.

Abstract:
We compute the single-particle inverse lifetime, along with the conductivity-derived scattering rate, for a metallic system in an s-wave superconducting state. When both electron-phonon and electron-impurity scattering are included, we find that while these scattering rates are in qualitative agreement, in general quantitative agreement is lacking. We also derive results for the quasiparticle lifetime within the BCS framework with impurity scattering, which makes it clear that impurity scattering is suppressed for electrons near the Fermi surface in the superconducting state.

Abstract:
A new generation of angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements on the cuprate superconductors offer the promise of enhanced momentum and energy resolution. In particular, the energy and temperature dependence of the on-shell nodal (k_x=k_y) quasiparticle scattering rate can be studied. In the superconducting state, low temperature transport measurements suggest that one can describe nodal quasiparticles within the framework of a BCS d-wave model by including forward elastic scattering and spin-fluctuation inelastic scattering. Here, using this model, we calculate the temperature and frequency dependence of the on-shell nodal quasiparticle scattering rate in the superconducting state which determines the momentum width of the ARPES momentum distribution curves. For a zero-energy quasiparticle at the nodal momentum k_N, both the elastic and inelastic scattering rate show a sudden decrease as the temperature drops below Tc, reflecting the onset of the gap amplitude. At low temperatures the scattering rate decreases as T^3 and approaches a zero temperature value determined by the elastic impurity scattering. For T>T_c, we find a quasilinear dependence on T. At low reduced temperatures, the elastic scattering rate for the nodal quasiparticles exhibits a quasilinear increase at low energy which arises from elastic scattering processes. The inelastic spin-fluctuation scattering leads to a low energy omega^3 dependence which, for omega>~Delta_0, crosses over to a quasilinear behavior.

Abstract:
We compute the single particle inverse lifetime, evaluated in the superconducting state. Within the BCS framework, the calculation can be done non-perturbatively, i.e. poles can be found well away from the real axis. We find that perturbative calculations are in good agreement with these results, even for non-zero impurity scattering. With electron-phonon scattering added to the problem, we use the Eliashberg equations, with impurity scattering, to calculate the quasiparticle inverse lifetime perturbatively. In all cases we find that the inverse lifetime is significantly suppressed in the superconducting state, particularly in the presence of impurity scattering. We also compute the far-infrared and microwave conductivity, and describe procedures for extracting scattering rates from conductivity measurements. While these procedures lead to scattering rates in qualitative agreement with the inverse lifetime, we find that quantitative agreement is lacking, in general.

Abstract:
The scattering cross section of a Coulomb potential screened by a charged Bose gas (CBG) is calculated both above and below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature, using the variable phase method. In contrast with the BCS superconductor, the screened scattering potential and quasiparticle lifetime are found to be very different in the superconducting and normal states. We apply the result to explain the appearence of a sharp peak in the ARPES spectra in some cuprates below the superconducting transition.

Abstract:
We present a quantitative many-body analysis using the GW approximation of the decay rate $\Gamma$ due to electron-electron scattering of excitations in the Shockley surface state band of Ag(111), as measured using the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). The calculations include the perturbing influence of the STM, which causes a Stark-shift of the surface state energy $E$ and concomitant increase in $\Gamma$. We find $\Gamma$ varies more rapidly with $E$ than recently found for image potential states, where the STM has been shown to significantly affect measured lifetimes. For the Shockley states, the Stark-shifts that occur under normal tunnelling conditions are relatively small and previous STM-derived lifetimes need not be corrected.

Abstract:
We study the dynamical quasiparticle scattering by spin and charge fluctuations in Fe-based pnictides within a five-orbital model with on-site interactions. The leading contribution to the scattering rate is calculated from the second-order diagrams with the polarization operator calculated in the random-phase approximation. We find one-particle scattering rates which are highly anisotropic on each Fermi surface sheet due to the momentum dependence of the spin susceptibility and the multi-orbital composition of each Fermi pocket. This fact, combined with the anisotropy of the effective mass, produces disparity between electrons and holes in conductivity, the Hall coefficient, and the Raman initial slope, in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

Abstract:
Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) measurements find that the surface of Bi-2212 is characterized by nanoscale sized regions, "gap patches," which have different magnitudes for the d-wave energy gap. Recent studies have shown that the tunnelling conductance can be fit using a BCS-type density of states for a d-wave superconductor with a local quasiparticle scattering rate. The fit is made with a scattering rate which varies linearly with energy and has a slope that is positively correlated with the local value of the gap. We revisit a model of quasiparticle scattering by impurities and spin fluctuations which was previously used to describe the lifetimes of nodal quasiparticles measured by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES). We argue that the broadening of the local density of states is in general determined by the imaginary part of the self-energy of the system averaged over a small region. The size of this region is set by a mean free path which depends upon the energy. At low energies, this region is found to be significantly larger than a gap "patch", so that the density of states measured by STS is homogeneous in this energy range. At higher energies where the mean free path is comparable with the patch size, the density of states is inhomogeneous. We show that a local self-energy in the impurity-plus-spin fluctuation model, while not strictly linear, yields a local density of states (LDOS) nearly identical to the full theory, and argue that it is consistent with the STS data as well as the phenomenological linear scattering rate extracted from experiment. We also explore the qualitative consequences of this phenomenology for the spectral widths observed in ARPES and predict the existence of Fermi arcs in the superconducting state.