Abstract:
We quantify the presence of direct processes in the S-matrix of chaotic microwave cavities with absorption in the one-channel case. To this end the full distribution P_S(S) of the S-matrix, i.e. S=\sqrt{R}e^{i\theta}, is studied in cavities with time-reversal symmetry for different antenna coupling strengths T_a or direct processes. The experimental results are compared with random-matrix calculations and with numerical simulations based on the Heidelberg approach including absorption. The theoretical result is a generalization of the Poisson kernel. The experimental and the numerical distributions are in excellent agreement with random-matrix predictions for all cases.

Abstract:
We show that the study of the statistical properties of the scattering matrix S for quantum chaotic scattering in the presence of direct processes (charaterized by a nonzero average S matrix ) can be reduced to the simpler case where direct processes are absent ( = 0). Our result is verified with a numerical simulation of the two-energy autocorrelation for two-dimensional S matrices. It is also used to extend Wigner's time delay distribution for one-dimensional S matrices, recently found for = 0, to the case not equal to zero; this extension is verified numerically. As a consequence of our result, future calculations can be restricted to the simpler case of no direct processes.

Abstract:
The problem of chaotic scattering in presence of direct processes or prompt responses is mapped via a transformation to the case of scattering in absence of such processes for non-unitary scattering matrices, \tilde S. In the absence of prompt responses, \tilde S is uniformly distributed according to its invariant measure in the space of \tilde S matrices with zero average, < \tilde S > =0. In the presence of direct processes, the distribution of \tilde S is non-uniform and it is characterized by the average < \tilde S > (\neq 0). In contrast to the case of unitary matrices S, where the invariant measures of S for chaotic scattering with and without direct processes are related through the well known Poisson kernel, here we show that for non-unitary scattering matrices the invariant measures are related by the Poisson kernel squared. Our results are relevant to situations where flux conservation is not satisfied. For example, transport experiments in chaotic systems, where gains or losses are present, like microwave chaotic cavities or graphs, and acoustic or elastic resonators.

Abstract:
We propose a model to describe the statistical properties of wave scattering through a classically chaotic cavity in the presence of surface absorption. Experimentally, surface absorption could be realized by attaching an "absorbing patch" to the inner wall of the cavity. In our model, the cavity is connected to the outside by a waveguide with N open modes (or channels), while an experimental patch is simulated by an "absorbing mirror" attached to the inside wall of the cavity; the mirror, consisting of a waveguide that supports Na channels, with absorption inside and a perfectly reflecting wall at its end, is described by a subunitary scattering matrix Sa. The number of channels Na, as a measure of the geometric cross section of the mirror, and the lack of unitarity of Sa as a measure of absorption, are under our control: these parameters have an important physical significance for real experiments. The absorption strength in the cavity is quantified by the trace of the lack of unitarity. The statistical distribution of the resulting S matrix for N=1 open channel and only one absorbing channel, Na =1, is solved analytically for the orthogonal and unitary universality classes, and the results are compared with those arising from numerical simulations. The relation with other models existing in the literature, in some of which absorption has a volumetric character, is also studied.

Abstract:
The effect of direct processes on the statistical properties of deterministic scattering processes in a chaotic waveguide is examined. The single channel Poisson kernel describes well the distribution of S-matrix eigenphases when evaluated over an energy interval. When direct processes are transformed away, the scattering processes exhibit universal random matrix behavior. The effect of chaos on scattering wavefunctions,eigenphases, and time delays is discussed.

Abstract:
Wave scattering in chaotic systems with a uniform energy loss (absorption) is considered. Within the random matrix approach we calculate exactly the energy correlation functions of different matrix elements of impedance or scattering matrices for systems with preserved or broken time-reversal symmetry. The obtained results are valid at any number of arbitrary open scattering channels and arbitrary absorption. Elastic enhancement factors (defined through the ratio of the corresponding variance in reflection to that in transmission) are also discussed.

Abstract:
Atoms, propagating across a detuned standing laser wave, can be scattered in a chaotic way even in the absence of spontaneous emission and any modulation of the laser field. Spontaneous emission masks the effect in some degree, but the Monte Carlo simulation shows that it can be observed in real experiments by the absorption imaging method or depositing atoms on a substrate. The effect of chaotic scattering is explained by a specific behavior of the dipole moments of atoms crossing the field nodes and is shown to depend strongly on the value of the atom-laser detuning.

Abstract:
We review recent progress in analysing wave scattering in systems with both intrinsic chaos and/or disorder and internal losses, when the scattering matrix is no longer unitary. By mapping the problem onto a nonlinear supersymmetric sigma-model, we are able to derive closed form analytic expressions for the distribution of reflection probability in a generic disordered system. One of the most important properties resulting from such an analysis is statistical independence between the phase and the modulus of the reflection amplitude in every perfectly open channel. The developed theory has far-reaching consequences for many quantities of interest, including local Green functions and time delays. In particular, we point out the role played by absorption as a sensitive indicator of mechanisms behind the Anderson localisation transition. We also provide a random-matrix-based analysis of S-matrix and impedance correlations for various symmetry classes as well as the distribution of transmitted power for systems with broken time-reversal invariance, completing previous works on the subject. The results can be applied, in particular, to the experimentally accessible impedance and reflection in a microwave or ultrasonic cavity attached to a system of antennas.

Abstract:
We review recent research on the transport properties of classical waves through chaotic systems with special emphasis on microwaves and sound waves. Inasmuch as these experiments use antennas or transducers to couple waves into or out of the systems, scattering theory has to be applied for a quantitative interpretation of the measurements. Most experiments concentrate on tests of predictions from random matrix theory and the random plane wave approximation. In all studied examples a quantitative agreement between experiment and theory is achieved. To this end it is necessary, however, to take absorption and imperfect coupling into account, concepts that were ignored in most previous theoretical investigations. Classical phase space signatures of scattering are being examined in a small number of experiments.

Abstract:
A numerical study has been done of collisions between protons and hydrogen atoms, treated as classical particles, at low impact velocities. The presence of chaos has been looked for by investigating the processes with standard techniques of the chaotic--scattering theory. The evidence of a sharp transition from nearly regular scattering to fully developed chaos has been found at the lower velocities.