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An Arrow of Time Operator for Standard Quantum Mechanics  [PDF]
Y. Strauss,J. Silman,S. Machnes,L. P. Horwitz
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: We introduce a self-adjoint operator that indicates the direction of time within the framework of standard quantum mechanics. That is, as a function of time its expectation value decreases monotonically for any initial state. This operator can be defined for any system governed by a Hamiltonian with a uniformly finitely degenerate, absolutely continuous and semibounded spectrum. We study some of the operator's properties and illustrate them for a large equivalence class of scattering problems. We also discuss some previous attempts to construct such an operator, and show that the no-go theorems developed in this context are not applicable to our construction.
On Self-adjoint extensions and symmetries in Quantum Mechanics  [PDF]
Alberto Ibort,Fernando Lledó,Juan Manuel Pérez-Pardo
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s00023-014-0379-4
Abstract: Given a unitary representation of a Lie group $G$ on a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$, we develop the theory of $G$-invariant self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators both using von Neumann's theorem and the theory of quadratic forms. We also analyze the relation between the reduction theory of the unitary representation and the reduction of the $G$-invariant unbounded operator. We also prove a $G$-invariant version of the representation theorem for quadratic forms. The previous results are applied to the study of $G$-invariant self-adjoint extensions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a smooth Riemannian manifold with boundary on which the group $G$ acts. These extensions are labeled by admissible unitaries $U$ acting on the $L^2$-space at the boundary and having spectral gap at $-1$. It is shown that if the unitary representation $V$ of the symmetry group $G$ is traceable, then the self-adjoint extension of the Laplace-Beltrami operator determined by $U$ is $G$-invariant if $U$ and $V$ commute at the boundary. Various significant examples are discussed at the end.
Singular Potentials in Quantum Mechanics and Ambiguity in the Self-Adjoint Hamiltonian  [cached]
Tamás Fül?p
Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry : Methods and Applications , 2007,
Abstract: For a class of singular potentials, including the Coulomb potential (in three and less dimensions) and $V(x) = g/x^2$ with the coefficient $g$ in a certain range ($x$ being a space coordinate in one or more dimensions), the corresponding Schr dinger operator is not automatically self-adjoint on its natural domain. Such operators admit more than one self-adjoint domain, and the spectrum and all physical consequences depend seriously on the self-adjoint version chosen. The article discusses how the self-adjoint domains can be identified in terms of a boundary condition for the asymptotic behaviour of the wave functions around the singularity, and what physical differences emerge for different self-adjoint versions of the Hamiltonian. The paper reviews and interprets known results, with the intention to provide a practical guide for all those interested in how to approach these ambiguous situations.
Singular Potentials in Quantum Mechanics and Ambiguity in the Self-Adjoint Hamiltonian  [PDF]
Tamás Fül?p
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.3842/SIGMA.2007.107
Abstract: For a class of singular potentials, including the Coulomb potential (in three and less dimensions) and $V(x) = g/x^2$ with the coefficient $g$ in a certain range ($x$ being a space coordinate in one or more dimensions), the corresponding Schr\"odinger operator is not automatically self-adjoint on its natural domain. Such operators admit more than one self-adjoint domain, and the spectrum and all physical consequences depend seriously on the self-adjoint version chosen. The article discusses how the self-adjoint domains can be identified in terms of a boundary condition for the asymptotic behaviour of the wave functions around the singularity, and what physical differences emerge for different self-adjoint versions of the Hamiltonian. The paper reviews and interprets known results, with the intention to provide a practical guide for all those interested in how to approach these ambiguous situations.
Self-adjoint extensions of operators and the teaching of quantum mechanics  [PDF]
Guy Bonneau,Jacques Faraut,Galliano Valent
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1119/1.1328351
Abstract: For the example of the infinitely deep well potential, we point out some paradoxes which are solved by a careful analysis of what is a truly self-adjoint operator. We then describe the self-adjoint extensions and their spectra for the momentum and the Hamiltonian operators in different physical situations. Some consequences are worked out, which could lead to experimental checks.
Non standard parametrizations and adjoint invariants of classical groups  [PDF]
Adrian R. Lugo
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(99)00936-3
Abstract: We obtain local parametrizations of classical non-compact Lie groups where adjoint invariants under maximal compact subgroups are manifest. Extension to non compact subgroups is straightforward. As a by-product parametrizations of the same type are obtained for compact groups. They are of physical interest in any theory gauge invariant under the adjoint action, typical examples being the two dimensional gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten-Novikov models where these coordinatizations become of extreme usefulness to get the background fields representing the vacuum expectation values of the massless modes of the associated (super) string theory.
Correspondence of the eigenvalues of a non-self-adjoint operator to those of a self-adjoint operator  [PDF]
John Weir
Mathematics , 2008, DOI: 10.1112/S0025579310000616
Abstract: We prove that the eigenvalues of a certain highly non-self-adjoint operator that arises in fluid mechanics correspond, up to scaling by a positive constant, to those of a self-adjoint operator with compact resolvent; hence there are infinitely many real eigenvalues which accumulate only at $\pm \infty$. We use this result to determine the asymptotic distribution of the eigenvalues and to compute some of the eigenvalues numerically. We compare these to earlier calculations by other authors.
Self-adjoint extensions and SUSY breaking in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics  [PDF]
H. Falomir,P. A. G. Pisani
Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/0305-4470/38/21/011
Abstract: We consider the self-adjoint extensions (SAE) of the symmetric supercharges and Hamiltonian for a model of SUSY Quantum Mechanics in $\mathbb{R}^+$ with a singular superpotential. We show that only for two particular SAE, whose domains are scale invariant, the algebra of N=2 SUSY is realized, one with manifest SUSY and the other with spontaneously broken SUSY. Otherwise, only the N=1 SUSY algebra is obtained, with spontaneously broken SUSY and non degenerate energy spectrum.
On compatibility of Bohmian mechanics with standard quantum mechanics  [PDF]
H. Nikolic
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: It is shown that the apparent incompatibility of Bohmian mechanics with standard quantum mechanics, found by Akhavan and Golshani quant-ph/0305020, is an artefact of the fact that the initial wavefunction they use, being proportional to a $\delta$-function, is not a regular wavefunction.
Quantum Mechanics of the Vacuum State in Two-Dimensional QCD with Adjoint Fermions  [PDF]
F. Lenz,M. Shifman,M. Thies
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.51.7060
Abstract: A study of two-dimensional QCD on a spatial circle with Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation of the gauge groups SU(2) and SU(3) has been performed. The main emphasis is put on the symmetry properties related to the homotopically non-trivial gauge transformations and the discrete axial symmetry of this model. Within a gauge fixed canonical framework, the delicate interplay of topology on the one hand and Jacobians and boundary conditions arising in the course of resolving Gauss's law on the other hand is exhibited. As a result, a consistent description of the residual $Z_N$ gauge symmetry (for SU(N)) and the ``axial anomaly" emerges. For illustrative purposes, the vacuum of the model is determined analytically in the limit of a small circle. There, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is justified and reduces the vacuum problem to simple quantum mechanics. The issue of fermion condensates is addressed and residual discrepancies with other approaches are pointed out.
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