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 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20158902007 Abstract: An Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) is a mandatory and key device of a space-based mission which aims to detect Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) and Extremely-High Energy Cosmic Rays (EHECR) from Space. JEM-EUSO has a dedicated atmospheric monitoring system that plays a fundamental role in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. Our AMS consists of a very challenging space infrared camera and a LIDAR device, that are being fully designed with space qualification to fulfil the scientific requirements of this space mission. The AMS will provide information of the cloud cover in the FoV of JEM-EUSO, as well as measurements of the cloud top altitudes with an accuracy of 500 m and the optical depth profile of the atmosphere transmittance in the direction of each air shower with an accuracy of 0.15 degree and a resolution of 500 m. This will ensure that the energy of the primary UHECR and the depth of maximum development of the EAS ( Extensive Air Shower) are measured with an accuracy better than 30\% primary energy and 120 $g/cm^2$ depth of maximum development for EAS occurring either in clear sky or with the EAS depth of maximum development above optically thick cloud layers. Moreover a very novel radiometric retrieval technique considering the LIDAR shots as calibration points, that seems to be the most promising retrieval algorithm is under development to infer the Cloud Top Height (CTH) of all kind of clouds, thick and thin clouds in the FoV of the JEM-EUSO space telescope.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.ress.2014.08.014 Abstract: Reliability assessment in concerned with the analysis of devices and systems whose individual components are prone to fail. This reliability analysis documents the process and results of reliability determination of the JEM-EUSO photomultiplier tube component using the methods 217 Plus. Quantum efficiency degradation and radiation hardness assurance. In conclussion, the levels of damage suffered by the PMTs which comprise the focal surface of JEM-EUSO Space Telescope, are acceptable. The results show as well the greatest contribution to the failure is due to radiation SET. The guaranteed performance of this equipment is a 99.45 per cent, an accepted value of reliability thus fulfilling the objectives and technological challenges of JEM-EUSO.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20158903001 Abstract: The origin of cosmic rays have remained a mistery for more than a century. JEM-EUSO is a pioneer space-based telescope that will be located at the International Space Station (ISS) and its aim is to detect Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) and Extremely High Energy Cosmic Rays (EHECR) by observing the atmosphere. Unlike ground-based telescopes, JEM-EUSO will observe from upwards, and therefore, for a properly UHECR reconstruction under cloudy conditions, a key element of JEM-EUSO is an Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS). This AMS consists of a space qualified bi-spectral Infrared Camera, that will provide the cloud coverage and cloud top height in the JEM-EUSO Field of View (FoV) and a LIDAR, that will measure the atmospheric optical depth in the direction it has been shot. In this paper we will explain the effects of clouds for the determination of the UHECR arrival direction. Moreover, since the cloud top height retrieval is crucial to analyze the UHECR and EHECR events under cloudy conditions, the retrieval algorithm that fulfills the technical requierements of the Infrared Camera of JEM-EUSO to reconstruct the cloud top height is presently reported.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s10686-014-9378-1 Abstract: The JEM-EUSO observatory on board of the International Space Station (ISS) is a proposed pioneering space mission devoted to the investigation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). Looking downward at the earth's atmosphere with a 60$^\circ$ Field of View (FoV), the JEM-EUSO telescope will detect the fluorescence and Cherenkov UV emission from UHECR induced Extensive Air Showers (EAS) penetrating in the atmosphere. The capability of reconstructing the properties of the primary cosmic ray depends on the accurate measurement of the atmospheric conditions in the region of EAS development. The Atmospheric Monitoring system of JEM-EUSO will continuously monitor the atmosphere at the location of the EAS candidates and between the EAS and the JEM-EUSO telescope. With an UV LIDAR and an Infrared (IR) Camera the system will monitor the cloud cover and retrieve the cloud top altitude with an accuracy of $\sim$ 500 m and the optical depth profile of the atmosphere with an accuracy of $\Delta\tau \leq$ 0.15 and a resolution of 500 m. In this contribution the Atmospheric Monitoring system of JEM-EUSO will be presented. After a brief description of the system, the capability to recover the cloud top height and optical depth and to reconstruct the shower profile will be shown based on satellites data and simulation studies.
 Astrophysics and Space Sciences Transactions (ASTRA) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/astra-7-167-2011 Abstract: The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on JEM/EF (JEM-EUSO) is a space mission to study extremely high-energy cosmic rays. The JEM-EUSO instrument is a wide-angle refractive telescope in the near-ultraviolet wavelength region which will be mounted to the International Space Station. Its goal is to measure time-resolved fluorescence images of extensive air showers in the atmosphere. In this paper we describe in detail the main features and technological aspects of the focal surface of the instrument. The JEM-EUSO focal surface is a spherically curved surface, with an area of about 4.5 m2. The focal surface detector is made of more than 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). Current baseline is Hamamatsu R11265-03-M64. The approach to the focal surface detector is highly modular. Photo-Detector-Modules (PDM) are the basic units that drive the mechanical structure and data acquisition. Each PDM consists of 9 Elementary Cells (ECs). The EC, which is the basic unit of the MAPMT support structure and of the front-end electronics, contains 4 units of MAPMTs. In total, about 1 200 ECs or about 150 PDMs are arranged on the whole of the focal surface of JEM-EUSO.
 Physics , 2009, Abstract: JEM-EUSO, on board of the Japanese Exploration Module of the International Space Station, is being proposed as the first space observatory devoted to UHECR. Its privileged position at 430 km above the Earth surface, combined with a large field of view, innovative optics and a high efficiency focal surface, results in an unprecedented exposure which significantly surpasses that of the largest ground observatories. The large number of events expected above the GZK threshold for photo-pion production by protons will allow the directional identification of individual sources and the determination of their spectra, i.e., doing astronomy and astrophysics through the particle channel. Similar goals can be achieved in the case of light UHECR nuclei. Furthermore, the atmospheric target volume ($\sim 10^{12}$ ton) makes the possibility of neutrino observation a highlight of the mission. Other exploratory objectives include the detection of extreme energy gammas and the study of Galactic magnetic fields as well as global observations of the earth's atmosphere, including clouds, night-glows, plasma discharges, and meteors. In this contribution we will describe the scientific objectives of JEM-EUSO.
 Physics , 2009, Abstract: JEM-EUSO is a mission to study ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) by measuring the fluorescence light from giant air showers at the altitude of the International Space Station. In the tilted mode, JEM-EUSO will become very sensitive to the \v{C}erenkov light from the earth skimming tau neutrinos at the energy range of $10^{16-18}$eV. In this paper we will discuss high-energy tau neutrinos from nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). From simulations of cascade in GRB photon fields including various hadronic/leptonic processes, we estimate the neutrino flux from GRBs. Our results show that both muons and pions are dominant sources of neutrinos at the energy range of $10^{16-18}$ eV. We discuss the possibility of detecting the \v{C}erenkov light of upward going showers from Earth skimming tau neutrinos coming from some closest GRBs.
 Physics , 2012, Abstract: This document contains a summary of the workshop which took place on 22 - 24 February 2012 at the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics in the University of Chicago. The goal of the workshop was to discuss the physics reach of the JEM-EUSO mission and how best to implement a global ground based calibration system for the instrument to realize the physics goal of unveiling the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/632/1/012092 Abstract: The JEM-EUSO mission aims to explore the origin of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs) through the observation of air-shower fluorescence light from space. The superwide-field telescope looks down from the International Space Station onto the night sky to detect UV photons (fluorescence and Cherenkov photons) emitted from air showers. Such a space detector offers the remarkable opportunity to observe a huge volume of atmosphere at once and will achieve an unprecedented statistics within a few years of operation. Several test experiments are currently in operation: e.g., one to observe the fluorescence background from the edge of the Atmosphere (EUSO-Balloon), or another to demonstrate on ground the capability of detecting air showers with a EUSO-type telescope (EUSO-TA). In this contribution a short review on the scientific objectives of the mission and an update of the instrument definition, performances and status, as well as status of the test experiments will be given.
 Physics , 2013, Abstract: The flux of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) depends on the cosmic distribution of their sources. Data from CR observations are yet inconclusive about their exact location or distribution, but provide a measure for the average local density of these emitters. Due to the discreteness of the emitters the flux is expected to show ensemble fluctuations on top of the statistical variations, a reflection of the cosmic variance. This effect is strongest for the most energetic cosmic rays due to the limited propagation distance in the cosmic radiation background and is hence a local phenomenon. In this work we study the sensitivity of the JEM-EUSO space mission to ensemble fluctuations on the assumption of uniform distribution of sources, with local source density \sim 10^{-5} Mpc^{-3}. We show that in 3 years of observation JEM-EUSO will be able to probe ensemble fluctuations if the nearest sources are at 3 Mpc, and that after 10 years orbiting the Earth, this pathfinder mission will become sensitive to ensemble fluctuations if the nearest sources are 10 Mpc away. The study of spectral fluctuations from the local source distributions are complementary to but independent of cosmic ray anisotropy studies.
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