Abstract:
Vortex stretching in a compressible fluid is considered. Two-dimensional and axisymmetric cases are considered separately. The flows associated with the vortices are perpendicular to the plane of the uniform straining flows. Externally-imposed density build-up near the axis leads to enhanced compactness of the vortices - "dressed" vortices (in analogy to "dressed" charged particles in a dielectric system). The compressible vortex flow solutions in the 2D as well as axisymmetric cases identify a length scale relevant for the compressible case which leads to the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili spectrum for compressible turbulence. Vortex reconnection process in a compressible fluid is shown to be possible even in the inviscid case - compressibility leads to defreezing of vortex lines in the fluid.

Abstract:
We present a study on the nonlinear dynamics of a disturbance to the laminar state in non-rotating axisymmetric Poiseuille pipe flows. The associated Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a set of coupled generalized Camassa-Holm type equations. These support singular inviscid travelling waves with wedge-type singularities, the so called peakons, which bifurcate from smooth solitary waves as their celerity increase. In physical space they correspond to localized toroidal vortices or vortexons. The inviscid vortexon is similar to the nonlinear neutral structures found by Walton (2011) and it may be a precursor to puffs and slugs observed at transition, since most likely it is unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances.

Abstract:
Numerical results on the interaction between the compressible streamwise vortices and shockwaves were presented in this paper.Two cases were discussed including a moving shockwave interacting with a vortex and a Mach disc at the exit of an overexpanded nozzle interacting with the vortex in the swirling jet. The quasi axisymmetric N S equation was used and the time accurate finite difference TVD scheme was implemented. Compared with the corresponding experiments, the numerical simulat...

Abstract:
The coupling between dilatation and vorticity, two coexisting and fundamental processes in fluid dynamics is investigated here, in the simplest cases of inviscid 2D isotropic Burgers and pressureless Euler-Coriolis fluids respectively modeled by single vortices confined in compressible, local, inertial and global, rotating, environments. The field equations are established, inductively, starting from the equations of the characteristics solved with an initial Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity fields namely a vorticity free and a divergence free part and, deductively, by means of a canonical Hamiltonian Clebsch like formalism, implying two pairs of conjugate variables. Two vector valued fields are constants of the motion: the velocity field in the Burgers case and the momentum field per unit mass in the Euler-Coriolis one. Taking advantage of this property, a class of solutions for the mass densities of the fluids is given by the Jacobian of their sum with respect to the actual coordinates. Implementation of the isotropy hypothesis results in the cancellation of the dilatation-rotational cross terms in the Jacobian. A simple expression is obtained for all the radially symmetric Jacobians occurring in the theory. Representative examples of regular and singular solutions are shown and the competition between dilatation and vorticity is illustrated. Inspired by thermodynamical, mean field theoretical analogies, a genuine variational formula is proposed which yields unique measure solutions for the radially symmetric fluid densities investigated. We stress that this variational formula, unlike the Hopf-Lax formula, enables us to treat systems which are both compressible and rotational. Moreover in the one-dimensional case, we show for an interesting application that both variational formulas are equivalent.

Abstract:
We present a study on the nonlinear dynamics of small long-wave disturbances to the laminar state in non-rotating axisymmetric Poiseuille pipe flows. At high Reynolds numbers, the associated Navier-Stokes equations can be reduced to a set of coupled Korteweg-de Vries-type (KdV) equations that support inviscid and smooth travelling waves numerically computed using the Petviashvili method. In physical space they correspond to localized toroidal vortices concentrated near the pipe boundaries (wall vortexons) or that wrap around the pipe axis (centre vortexons), in agreement with the analytical soliton solutions derived by Fedele (2012). The KdV dynamics of a perturbation is also investigated by means of an high accurate Fourier-based numerical scheme. We observe that an initial vortical patch splits into a centre vortexon radiating patches of vorticity near the wall. These can undergo further splitting leading to a proliferation of centre vortexons that eventually decay due to viscous effects. The splitting process originates from a radial flux of azimuthal vorticity from the wall to the pipe axis in agreement with the inverse cascade of cross-stream vorticity identified in channel flows by Eyink (2008). The inviscid vortexon most likely is unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances and may be a precursor to puffs and slug flow formation.

Abstract:
We address the question of constructing simple inviscid vortex models which optimally approximate realistic flows as solutions of an inverse problem. Assuming the model to be incompressible, inviscid and stationary in the frame of reference moving with the vortex, the "structure" of the vortex is uniquely characterized by the functional relation between the streamfunction and vorticity. It is demonstrated how the inverse problem of reconstructing this functional relation from data can be framed as an optimization problem which can be efficiently solved using variational techniques. In contrast to earlier studies, the vorticity function defining the streamfunction-vorticity relation is reconstructed in the continuous setting subject to a minimum number of assumptions. To focus attention, we consider flows in 3D axisymmetric geometry with vortex rings. To validate our approach, a test case involving Hill's vortex is presented in which a very good reconstruction is obtained. In the second example we construct an optimal inviscid vortex model for a realistic flow in which a more accurate vorticity function is obtained than produced through an empirical fit. When compared to available theoretical vortex-ring models, our approach has the advantage of offering a good representation of both the vortex structure and its integral characteristics.

Abstract:
We establish various criteria, which are known in the incompressible case, for the validity of the inviscid limit for the compressible Navier-Stokes flows considered in a general domain $\Omega$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with or without a boundary. In the presence of a boundary, a generalized Navier boundary condition for velocity is assumed, which in particular by convention includes the classical no-slip boundary conditions. In this general setting we extend the Kato criteria and show the convergence to a solution which is dissipative "up to the boundary". In the case of smooth solutions, the convergence is obtained in the relative energy norm.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the nonlinear dynamics of an axisymmetric disturbance to the laminar state in non-rotating Poiseuille pipe flows. In particular, we show that the associated Navier-Stokes equations can be reduced to a set of coupled Camassa-Holm type equations. These support inviscid and smooth localized travelling waves, which are numerically computed using the Petviashvili method. In physical space they correspond to localized toroidal vortices that concentrate near the pipe boundaries (wall vortexons) or wrap around the pipe axis (centre vortexons) in agreement with the analytical soliton solutions derived by Fedele (2012) for small and long-wave disturbances. Inviscid singular vortexons with discontinuous radial velocities are also numerically discovered as associated to special traveling waves with a wedge-type singularity, viz. peakons. Their existence is confirmed by an analytical solution of exponentially-shaped peakons that is obtained for the particular case of the uncoupled Camassa-Holm equations. The evolution of a perturbation is also investigated using an accurate Fourier-type spectral scheme. We observe that an initial vortical patch splits into a centre vortexon radiating vorticity in the form of wall vortexons. These can under go further splitting before viscosity dissipate them, leading to a slug of centre vortexons. The splitting process originates from a radial flux of azimuthal vorticity from the wall to the pipe axis in agreement with Eyink (2008). The inviscid and smooth vortexon is similar to the nonlinear neutral structures derived by Walton (2011) and it may be a precursor to puffs and slugs observed at transition, since most likely it is unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances.

Abstract:
The irrotational motion of a compressible inviscid fluid is studied in the field of analogue gravity, where its metric is compared to that in general relativity, a fluid analogue of an evaporating black hole has been realized experimentally, and there are symmetries related to the standard model. Here we show the analogy also extends quantitatively to electromagnetic and quantum mechanical phenomena. We discuss a candidate model to account for the number and precision of these analogies.

Abstract:
An explicit determination of all local conservation laws of kinematic type on moving domains and moving surfaces is presented for the Euler equations of inviscid compressible fluid flow on curved Riemannian manifolds in n>1 dimensions. All corresponding kinematic constants of motion are also determined, along with all Hamiltonian kinematic symmetries and kinematic Casimirs which arise from the Hamiltonian structure of the inviscid compressible fluid equations.