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On the coupling of massless particles to scalar fields  [PDF]
Hartmut Frommert
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1007/BF02435884
Abstract: It is investigated if massless particles can couple to scalar fields in a special relativistic theory with classical particles. The only possible obvious theory which is invariant under Lorentz transformations and reparametrization of the affine parameter leads to trivial trajectories (straight lines) for the massless case, and also the investigation of the massless limit of the massive theory shows that there is no influence of the scalar field on the limiting trajectories. On the other hand, in contrast to this result, it is shown that massive particles are influenced by the scalar field in this theory even in the ultra-relativistic limit.
Motion of Massive and Massless Test particles in Dyadosphere Geometry  [PDF]
B. Raychaudhuri,F. Rahaman,M. Kalam,A. Ghosh
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1142/S0217732309029971
Abstract: Motion of massive and massless test particle in equilibrium and non-equilibrium case is discussed in a dyadosphere geometry through Hamilton-Jacobi method. Geodesics of particles are discussed through Lagrangian method too. Scalar wave equation for massless particle is analyzed to show the absence of superradiance.
The perturbative scalar massless propagator in Schwarzschild spacetime  [PDF]
C. Garcia-Recio,L. L. Salcedo
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/30/9/097001
Abstract: A short derivation is given of the weak gravitational field approximation to the scalar massless propagator in Schwarzschild spacetime obtained by Paszko using the path-integral approach. The contribution from the direct coupling of the quantum field to the scalar curvature is explictly included. The propagator complies with Hadamard's pattern, and the vacuum state is consistent with the perturbative version of the Boulware vacuum. The momentum space propagator is computed for massless or massive particles to the same perturbative order. The renormalized value of $\ < \phi^2(x)\ >$ for the massless case is reproduced.
Massless Limits of Massive Tensor Fields  [PDF]
Shinji Hamamoto
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.96.639
Abstract: In order to construct a massive tensor theory with a smooth massless limit, we apply two kinds of gauge-fixing procedures, Nakanishi's one and the BRS one, to two models of massive tensor field. The first is of the Fierz-Pauli (FP) type, which describes a pure massive tensor field; the other is of the additional-scalar-ghost (ASG) type, which includes a scalar ghost in addition to an ordinary tensor field. It is shown that Nakanishi's procedure can eliminate massless singularities in both two models, while the BRS procedure regularizes the ASG model only. The BRS-regularized ASG model is most promising in constructing a complete nonlinear theory.
Massless vs. Massive Hawking Radiation in AdS$_2$ Spacetime  [PDF]
Sung-Won Kim,Won Tae Kim,John J. Oh
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01312-X
Abstract: We study massless and massive Hawking radiations on a two-dimensional AdS spacetime. For the massless case, the quantum stress-energy tensor of a massless scalar field on the AdS background is calculated, and the expected null radiation is obtained. However, for the massive case, the scattering analysis is performed in order to calculate the absorption and reflection coefficients which are related to statistical Hawking temperature. On the contrary to the massless case, we obtain a nonvanishing massive radiation.
Scalar field localization on 3-branes placed at a warped resolved conifold  [PDF]
J. E. G. Silva,C. A. S. Almeida
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.84.085027
Abstract: We have studied the localization of scalar field on a 3-brane embedded in a six dimensional warped bulk of the form $M_{4}\times C_{2}$, where $M_{4}$ is a 3-brane and $C_{2}$ is a 2-cycle of a six resolved conifold $\mathcal{C}_{6}$ over a $T^{1,1}$ space. Since the resolved conifold is singularity-free in $r=0$ depending on a resolution parameter $a$, we have analyzed the behavior of the localization of scalar field when we vary the resolution parameter. On one hand, this enable us to study the effects that a singularity has on the field. On the other hand we can use the resolution parameter as a fine-tuning between the bulk Planck mass and 3-brane Planck mass and so it opens a new perspective to extend the hierarchy problem. Using a linear and a nonlinear warp factor, we have found that the massive and massless modes are trapped to the brane even in the singular cone ($a\neq 0$). We have also compared the results obtained in this geometry and those obtained in other six-dimensional models, as string-like geometry and cigar-like universe geometry.
Massive and Massless Monopoles and Duality  [PDF]
Erick J. Weinberg
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: I review some aspects of BPS magnetic monopoles and of electric-magnetic duality in theories with arbitrary gauge groups. When the symmetry is maximally broken to a U(1)^r subgroup, all magnetically charged configurations can be understood in terms of r species of massive fundamental monopoles. When the unbroken group has a non-Abelian factor, some of these fundamental monopoles become massless and can be viewed as the duals to the massless gauge bosons. Rather than appearing as distinct solitons, these massless monopoles are manifested as clouds of non-Abelian field surrounding one or more massive monopoles. I describe in detail some examples of solutions with such clouds.
Are Photons Massless or Massive?  [PDF]
Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.518207
Abstract: Prevailing and conventional wisdom as drawn from both Professor Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity (STR) and our palatable experience, holds that photons are massless particles and that, every particle that travels at the speed of light must—accordingly, be massless. Amongst other important but now resolved problems in physics, this assumption led to the Neutrino Mass Problem—namely, “Do neutrinos have mass?” Neutrinos appear very strongly to travel at the speed of light and according to the afore-stated, they must be massless. Massless neutrinos have a problem in that one is unable to explain the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations because this requires massive neutrinos. Experiments appear to strongly suggest that indeed, neutrinos most certainly are massive particles. While this solves the problem of neutrino oscillation, it directly leads to another problem, namely that of “How can a massive particle travel at the speed of light? Is not this speed a preserve and prerogative of only massless particles?” We argue herein that in principle, it is possible for massive particles to travel at the speed of light. In presenting the present letter, our hope is that this may aid or contribute significantly in solving the said problem of “How can massive particles travel at the speed of light?”
Causality of Massive Spin 2 Field in External Gravity  [PDF]
I. L. Buchbinder,D. M. Gitman,V. D. Pershin
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(00)01082-0
Abstract: We investigate the structure of equations of motion and lagrangian constraints in a general theory of massive spin 2 field interacting with external gravity. We demonstrate how consistency with the flat limit can be achieved in a number of specific spacetimes. One such example is an arbitrary static spacetime though equations of motion in this case may lack causal properties. Another example is provided by external gravity fulfilling vacuum Einstein equations with arbitrary cosmological constant. In the latter case there exists one-parameter family of theories describing causal propagation of the correct number of degrees of freedom for the massive spin 2 field in arbitrary dimension. For a specific value of the parameter a gauge invariance with a vector parameter appears, this value is interpreted as massless limit of the theory. Another specific value of the parameter produces gauge invariance with a scalar parameter and this cannot be interpreted as a consistent massive or massless theory.
Causality and Localization Operators  [PDF]
F. Buscemi,G. Compagno
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2004.11.045
Abstract: The evolution of the expectation values of one and two points scalar field operators and of positive localization operators, generated by an istantaneous point source is non local. Non locality is attributed either to zero point vacuum fluctuations, or to non local operations or to the microcausality principle being no satisfied.
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