Abstract:
We report photonic quantum circuits created using an ultrafast laser processing technique that is rapid, requires no lithographic mask and can be used to create three-dimensional networks of waveguide devices. We have characterized directional couplers--the key functional elements of photonic quantum circuits--and found that they perform as well as lithographically produced waveguide devices. We further demonstrate high-performance interferometers and an important multi-photon quantum interference phenomenon for the first time in integrated optics. This direct-write approach will enable the rapid development of sophisticated quantum optical circuits and their scaling into three-dimensions.

Abstract:
We demonstrate photonic quantum circuits that operate at the stringent levels that will be required for future quantum information science and technology. These circuits are fabricated from silica-on-silicon waveguides forming directional couplers and interferometers. While our focus is on the operation of quantum circuits, to test this operation required construction of a spectrally tuned photon source to produce near-identical pairs of photons. We show non-classical interference with two photons and a two-photon entangling logic gate that operate with near-unit fidelity. These results are a significant step towards large-scale operation of photonic quantum circuits.

Abstract:
Integrated quantum photonics is a promising approach for future practical and large-scale quantum information processing technologies, with the prospect of on-chip generation, manipulation and measurement of complex quantum states of light. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) material system is a promising technology platform, and has already successfully demonstrated key components including waveguide integrated single-photon sources and integrated single-photon detectors. However, quantum circuits capable of manipulating quantum states of light have so far not been investigated in this material system. Here, we report GaAs photonic circuits for the manipulation of single-photon and two-photon states. Two-photon quantum interference with a visibility of 94.9 +/- 1.3% was observed in GaAs directional couplers. Classical and quantum interference fringes with visibilities of 98.6 +/- 1.3% and 84.4 +/- 1.5% respectively were demonstrated in Mach-Zehnder interferometers exploiting the electro-optic Pockels effect. This work paves the way for a fully integrated quantum technology platform based on the GaAs material system.

Abstract:
Phase-locked loops (PLL), Costas loops and other synchronizing circuits are featured by the presence of a nonlinear phase detector, described by a periodic nonlinearity. In general, nonlinearities can cause complex behavior of the system such multi-stability and chaos. However, even phase locking may be guaranteed under any initial conditions, the transient behavior of the circuit can be unsatisfactory due to the cycle slipping. Growth of the phase error caused by cycle slipping is undesirable, leading e.g. to demodulation and decoding errors. This makes the problem of estimating the phase error oscillations and number of slipped cycles in nonlinear PLL-based circuits extremely important for modern telecommunications. Most mathematical results in this direction, available in the literature, examine the probability density of the phase error and expected number of slipped cycles under stochastic noise in the signal. At the same time, cycle slipping occurs also in deterministic systems with periodic nonlinearities, depending on the initial conditions, properties of the linear part and the periodic nonlinearity and other factors such as delays in the loop. In the present paper we give analytic estimates for the number of slipped cycles in PLL-based systems, governed by integro-differential equations, allowing to capture effects of high-order dynamics, discrete and distributed delays. We also consider the effects of singular small parameter perturbations on the cycle slipping behavior.

Abstract:
The paper reviews positive and negative time delays in various processes of classical and quantum physics. In the beginning, we demonstrate how a time-shifted response of a system to an external perturbation appears in classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics. Then we quantify durations of various quantum mechanical processes. The duration of the quantum tunneling is studied. An interpretation of the Hartman paradox is suggested. Time delays and advances appearing in the three-dimensional scattering problem on a central potential are considered. Then we discuss delays and advances appearing in quantum field theory and after that we focus on the issue of time delays and advancements in quantum kinetics. We discuss problems of the application of generalized kinetic equations in simulations of the system relaxation towards equilibrium and analyze the kinetic entropy flow. Possible measurements of time delays and advancements in experiments similar to the recent OPERA neutrino experiment are also discussed.

Abstract:
Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips.

Abstract:
Scalable photonic quantum technologies are based on multiple nested interferometers. To realize this architecture, integrated optical structures are needed to ensure stable, controllable, and repeatable operation. Here we show a key proof-of-principle demonstration of an externally-controlled photonic quantum circuit based upon UV-written waveguide technology. In particular, we present non-classical interference of photon pairs in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer constructed with X couplers in an integrated optical circuit with a thermo-optic phase shifter in one of the interferometer arms.

Abstract:
Following the simple observation that the interconnection of a set of quantum optical input-output devices can be specified using structural mode VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL), we demonstrate a computer-aided schematic capture workflow for modeling and simulating multi-component photonic circuits. We describe an algorithm for parsing circuit descriptions to derive quantum equations of motion, illustrate our approach using simple examples based on linear and cavity-nonlinear optical components, and demonstrate a computational approach to hierarchical model reduction.

Abstract:
A semiclassical simulation approach is presented for studying quantum noise in large-scale photonic circuits incorporating an ideal Kerr nonlinearity. A circuit solver is used to generate matrices defining a set of stochastic differential equations, in which the resonator field variables represent random samplings of the Wigner quasi-probability distributions. Although the semiclassical approach involves making a large-photon-number approximation, tests on one- and two-resonator circuits indicate satisfactory agreement between the semiclassical and full-quantum simulation results in the parameter regime of interest. The semiclassical model is used to simulate random errors in a large-scale circuit that contains 88 resonators and hundreds of components in total, and functions as a 4-bit ripple counter. The error rate as a function of on-state photon number is examined, and it is observed that the quantum fluctuation amplitudes do not increase as signals propagate through the circuit, an important property for scalability.

Abstract:
The importance of integrated quantum photonics in the telecom band resides on the possibility of interfacing with the optical network infrastructure developed for classical communications. In this framework, femtosecond laser written integrated photonic circuits, already assessed for quantum information experiments in the 800 nm wavelength range, have great potentials. In fact these circuits, written in glass, can be perfectly mode-matched at telecom wavelength to the in/out coupling fibers, which is a key requirement for a low-loss processing node in future quantum optical networks. In addition, for several applications quantum photonic devices will also need to be dynamically reconfigurable. Here we experimentally demonstrate the high performance of femtosecond laser written photonic circuits for quantum experiments in the telecom band and we show the use of thermal shifters, also fabricated by the same femtosecond laser, to accurately tune them. State-of-the-art manipulation of single and two-photon states is demonstrated, with fringe visibilities greater than 95%. This opens the way to the realization of reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits on this technological platform.