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Water Phytoremediation by Sedimentation Using Moringa oleifera Seed Powder to Remove Water Turbidity in Malaysia  [PDF]
Sures Narayasamy, Halimi Mohd Saud
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.32009
Abstract: The study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of a natural coagulant that is Moringa oleifera seeds in removing turbid from Malaysian water. Three water samples were used in this study subjected to purification studies using Moringa oleifera seeds that were collected during two different seasons that are dry season (February-March) and rainy season (October-November). The treated water samples were tested for turbidity level, pH level and color index. The result shows that Moringa oleifera seed collected during drought season has the ability to remove turbidity up to 88.0% and has better color index compared seeds collected during rainy season. The ability of Moringa oleifera seeds protein to act as a magnet assists in attracting the flocks and turbid in the water. Although not as effective as conventional chemicals, Moringa oleifera shows remarkable ability to remove turbid and encourages the use of natural coagulant in water treatment plants as it is cheap and environmental friendly.

 

Effect of Moringa oleifera-alum Ratios on Surface Water Treatment in North East Nigeria
N.E. Nwaiwu,A.A. Bello
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination for MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural pond surface water for domestic use. The physico-chemical properties investigated for in the raw, settled and filtered water were Ph, Total Dissolved Solids (tds), turbidity, colour and total suspended solids (tss). The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the pond was treated include Moringa oleifera (MO) seed powder only (i.e., 100% MO), aluminium sulphate (alum) only (i.e., 100% alum), 20% alum and 80% Moringa oleifera seed powder, 40% alum and 60% Moringa oleifera seed powder, 50% alum and 50% Moringa oleifera seed powder; 60% alum and 40% Moringa oleifera seed powder; and 80% alum and 20% Moringa oleifera seed powder. Five of the seven used coagulant combinations gave acceptable turbidity reduction i.e., below 10 NTU. When Moringa oleifera seed powder was used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value of 7.8 NTU but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum (using the alum) as a coagulant aid. The settling time for the MO seed powder is longer than that of the combined coagulants if the same results are to be obtained. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.
Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera Defatted Cake versus Seed in the Treatment of Unsafe Drinking Water: Case Study of Surface and Well Waters in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Aminata Kabore, Boubacar Savadogo, Francis Rosillon, Alfred S. Traore, Dayéri Dianou
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.511113
Abstract:

Safe drinking water access for rural populations in developing countries remains a challenge for a sustainable development, particularly in rural and periurban areas of Burkina Faso. The study aims to investigate the purifying capacity of Moringa oleifera defatted cake as compared to Moringa oleifera seed in the treatment of surface and well waters used for populations alimentation. A total of 90 water samples were collected in sterile glass bottles from 3 dams’ water reservoirs, a river, and a large diameter well, respectively. The water samples were treated in triplicate with Moringa oleifera seed and defatted cake coagulants. At different settling time and coagulant concentration, turbidity and pH were measured to determine the optimal conditions and factors influencing treatment with regard to sampling source. Nine physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, nitrates, nitrites, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, organic matter and sulfates), three bacterial fecal pollution indicators (Escherichia coli, fecal Coliforms and fecal Streptococcus) and parasite cysts were monitored based on laboratory standard methods. Data were analyzed using the Student’s t test and XLSTAT 7.5.2 statistical software. From the results obtained, for the same concentration of coagulant, settling time providing the lowest turbidity was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001) with Moringa oleifera cake than seed. Optimum settling time with Moringa oleifera cake was between 15 -

THE USE OF MORINGA SEED EXTRACT IN WATER PURIFICATION
Daniyan Safiya Yahaya,Abalaka Moses Enemaduku,Eru E.O.
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The high cost of treated water makes most people in the rural communities to resort to readily available sources which are normally of low quality exposing them to waterborne diseases. It is in this light that this research was carried out to confirm the effectiveness of powder extracted from mature-dried Moringa oleifera seeds which is commonly available in most rural communities of Africa. This was done using Completely Randomised Design with loading doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 g/l of the powder processed from Moringa seeds, and potash aluminium sulphate (alum) as coagulant. A control (water from the pond with only distilled water without alum and Moringa treatments) was also included. The turbidity, pH, and conductivity and total coliform were determined for all the samples. The turbidity for the samples ranged from log100.37 to log101.00NTU while the conductivity ranged from log101.56 to log102.86μS/cm. The 6 g/l treatment of Moringa and 4 and 6 g/l potash alum treatments gave values that are acceptable according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for safe drinking water. The control sample gave the higher extremes values which are unacceptable. The pH values (7.29 to 7.89) obtained for the treatments were in the recommended range set by World Health Organization (WHO). Comparative studies with potash alum showed that the seed was effective in the sedimentation of inorganic and organic matter in raw water. It reduced the total microbial and coliform counts by 55% and 65%, respectively, after 24 hours whereas potash alum achieved 65% and 85% reduction under similar condition. The Most Probable Number per 100 ml for total coliform counts had values from 3 to 23 at 95% confidence limits. The Moringa treatment gave lower counts. Findings of this research lend support to earlier works recommending the use of Moringa for water treatment.
STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF SETTLING TIME ON COLIFORM REDUCTION USING MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED POWDER  [PDF]
NWAIWU N.E.,LINGMU B.
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2011,
Abstract: This paper studied the effect of settling time on microbe removal for low and medium turbidity pond (surface) water using Moringa oleifera seed powder. A high percentage of turbidity removal alongside a high percentage of microbial population removal with appropriate Moringa oleifera quantity was achieved. The turbidity removal for the low turbid water ranged between 80% and 96.3% within the 24 hours settling period while the microbial population removal efficiency ranged between 62.95% and 94.56%. The disinfection pattern revealed a departure from Chick’s law as a result of tailing effect for both the low and medium turbidity water. Microbe reduction in water is achievable using the Moringa oleifera seed powder even when the coagulation process is slow but proper Moringa oleifera seed dosage will produce better results. Disinfection of water using the Moringa oleifera seed powder is not a first order reaction.
Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds  [PDF]
Larissa Cardoso Corrêa Araújo, Jaciana Santos Aguiar, Thiago Henrique Napole?o, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto Mota, André Luiz Souza Barros, Maiara Celine Moura, Marília?Cavalcanti Coriolano, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Teresinha Gon?alves Silva, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081973
Abstract: Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 μg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 μg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the immunosuppressive potential of the extract.
Water treatment by multistage filtration system with natural coagulant from Moringa oleifera seeds
Franco, Monalisa;Silva, Gabriela K. e;Paterniani, José E. S.;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162012000500018
Abstract: this study presents an evaluation of a pilot multistage filtration system (msf) with different dosages, 131 mg l-1 and 106 mg l-1, of the natural coagulant extracted from moringa oleifera seeds in pre-filtration and slow filtration stages, respectively. the system was comprised by a dynamic pre-filter unit, two upflow filters in parallel and four slow filters in parallel, and in one of the four filters had the filter media altered. the performance of the system was evaluated by monitoring some water quality parameters such as: turbidity, apparent color and slow filter load loss. the stages that have received the coagulant solution had better treatment efficiency compared with the steps without it. however, the direct application of the coagulant solution in the slow filter caused rapid clogging of the non-woven blanket and shorter career length.
Estudio Comparativo de Sulfato de Aluminio y Semillas de Moringa oleifera para la Depuración de Aguas con Baja Turbiedad Comparative Study of Aluminum Sulfate and Moringa oleifera seeds as Coagulants in the Clarification of Water with Low Turbidity  [cached]
Patrícia G.S Lédo,Raquel F.S Lima,Jo?o B.A Paulo,Marco A.C Duarte
Información Tecnológica , 2009,
Abstract: El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar la eficiencia de dos coagulantes, el sulfato de aluminio y semillas de Moringa oleifera, para remoción de turbiedad en muestras del agua provenientes de la Laguna de Jiqui, estado del Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-Brasil. Las dosificaciones y pH de los coagulantes fueron variados entre límites establecidos. Se realizaron pruebas, en tubos de ensayo Jar-Test y medidas de movilidad electroforética para determinar el potencial Zeta y para determinar los posibles mecanismos involucrados en el proceso de coagulación. Los mecanismos de coagulación con semillas de Moringa oleifera son adsorción y neutralización de cargas y adsorción y formación de puentes. Los resultados sugieren que para aguas de baja turbiedad, las semillas de Moringa oleifera pueden ser un sustituto potencialmente viable al sulfato de aluminio para la clarificación de dichas aguas. The objective of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of a coagulant prepared from Moringa oleifera seeds, for clarifying water samples with low turbidity from the Jiqui Lake, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-Brazil. The dosages and pH of the coagulants were changed within defined limits. Jar-test essays and measurements of electrophoretic mobility were done to determine the Zeta potential and the possible mechanisms involved in the coagulation process. The mechanisms of coagulation with Moringa oleifera are absorption and neutralization of charges and absorption and bridging. The results suggest that for low turbidity waters, Moringa oleifera seeds represent a potentially viable substitute of aluminum sulfate for water clarification.
Evaluation of eco-friendly coagulant from Trigonella foenum-graecum seed  [PDF]
Chitteti Ramamurthy, Malige Uma Maheswari, Natarajan Selvaganabathy, Muthuvel Suresh Kumar, Venugopal Sujatha, Chinnasamy Thirunavukkarasu
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.21007
Abstract: The ability of seed extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (T. foenum-graecum) and Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) to act as natural coagulants was tested using natural turbid water. Seed extracts were prepared using distilled water and NaCl (0.5 M and 1.0 M) solution. Only 1.0 M NaCl extract of T. foenum-graecum had coagulation capability and did not depend on pH values. Further it showed that natural coagulant obtained from T. foenum-graecum is temperature (upto 100?C) and pH stable (pH 4.0 - 10.0). Extract of C. cyminum had very minimal (16 ± 2) coagulation property. The seed extract of T. foenum-graecum showed about 80% coagulation properties, where as the best known natural coagulants such as Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera, and chemical coagulant such as Al2(SO4)3 showed around 90%, 65% and 95% respectively, which are used as standards for the present study. When compared with pond water, T. foenum-graecum extract treated water shows decrease in alkalinity, turbidity, KMnO4 demand and total coli-form. This study reveals that seed extract of T. foenum-graecum can be used as natural water coagulant.
Estudio Comparativo de Sulfato de Aluminio y Semillas de Moringa oleifera para la Depuración de Aguas con Baja Turbiedad
Lédo,Patrícia G.S; Lima,Raquel F.S; Paulo,Jo?o B.A; Duarte,Marco A.C;
Información tecnológica , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-07642009000500002
Abstract: the objective of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of a coagulant prepared from moringa oleifera seeds, for clarifying water samples with low turbidity from the jiqui lake, in the state of rio grande do norte, natal-brazil. the dosages and ph of the coagulants were changed within defined limits. jar-test essays and measurements of electrophoretic mobility were done to determine the zeta potential and the possible mechanisms involved in the coagulation process. the mechanisms of coagulation with moringa oleifera are absorption and neutralization of charges and absorption and bridging. the results suggest that for low turbidity waters, moringa oleifera seeds represent a potentially viable substitute of aluminum sulfate for water clarification.
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