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Monitoring of bright, nearby Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAGIC telescopes  [PDF]
Robert Wagner,Michael Backes,Konstancja Satalecka,Giacomo Bonnoli,Marlene Doert,Burkhard Steinke,Nikola Strah,Tomislav Terzic,Diego Tescaro,Malwina Uellenbeck,for the MAGIC Collaboration
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.7529/ICRC2011/V08/1030
Abstract: Observations and detections of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) by Cherenkov telescopes are often triggered by information about high flux states in other wavelength bands. To overcome this bias, the VHE gamma-ray telescope MAGIC has conducted dedicated monitoring observations of nearby AGN since 2006. Three well established, TeV-bright blazars were selected to be observed regularly: Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES1959+650. The goals of these observations are to obtain an unbiased distribution of flux states shedding light on the duty cycle of AGN, to investigate potential spectral changes during periods of different source activity, and to correlate the results with multiwavelength observations. Also clues on a potential periodic behavior of the sources might be drawn from a study of the obtained lightcurves. By testing predictions of theoretical models, like, e.g., the correlation between the TeV flux level and the peak frequency predicted in SSC models, monitoring deepens our knowledge about the acceleration and emission processes in AGN. The status and results of the MAGIC AGN monitoring program will be presented.
X-ray Bright Active Galactic Nuclei in Massive Galaxy Clusters II: The Fraction of Galaxies Hosting Active Nuclei  [PDF]
S. Ehlert,A. von der Linden,S. W. Allen,W. N. Brandt,Y. Q. Xue,B. Luo,A. Mantz,R. G. Morris,D. Applegate,P. Kelly
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2025
Abstract: We present a measurement of the fraction of cluster galaxies hosting X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) as a function of clustercentric distance scaled in units of $r_{500}$. Our analysis employs high quality Chandra X-ray and Subaru optical imaging for 42 massive X-ray selected galaxy cluster fields spanning the redshift range of $0.2 < z < 0.7$. In total, our study involves 176 AGN with bright ($R <23$) optical counterparts above a $0.5-8.0$ keV flux limit of $10^{-14} \rm{erg} \ \rm{cm}^{-2} \ \rm{s}^{-1}$. When excluding central dominant galaxies from the calculation, we measure a cluster-galaxy AGN fraction in the central regions of the clusters that is $\sim 3 $ times lower that the field value. This fraction increases with clustercentric distance before becoming consistent with the field at $\sim 2.5 r_{500}$. Our data exhibit similar radial trends to those observed for star formation and optically selected AGN in cluster member galaxies, both of which are also suppressed near cluster centers to a comparable extent. These results strongly support the idea that X-ray AGN activity and strong star formation are linked through their common dependence on available reservoirs of cold gas.
On Radio and X-ray Emission Mechanisms in Nearby, X-ray Bright Galactic Nuclei  [PDF]
Insu Yi,Stephen P. Boughn
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/307041
Abstract: It has been suggested that advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) are responsible for the X-ray activity in nearby galactic nuclei. These X-ray bright galactic nuclei (XBGN) are a heterogeneous group which includes LINERs, low to moderate luminosity Seyferts, and narrow-line X-ray galaxies with 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities in the range ~10**39 to ~10**43 erg/s. In the absence of a radio jet, the core 15 GHz radio luminosity of an ADAF is relatively low and roughly proportional to the mass of the central black hole. The predicted radio luminosity depends primarily on the black hole mass and for XBGN typically falls in the range 10**35-10**39 erg/s. We designate these as ``radio quiet'' XBGN. However, some level of jet activity seems to be present in most sources and the radio emission can be considerably larger than that from the ADAF core. We discuss connections between radio-bright XBGN and radio-loud, powerful active galactic nuclei (AGN) and suggest that the radio activities are directly correlated with black hole spins in both cases. Even in the presence of a radio jet, high resolution, high frequency radio imaging of nearby XBGN could identify compact, inverted spectrum ADAF radio sources. The unique radio/X-ray luminosity relation is confirmed in a few cases where black hole masses are known and could be used as a tool to estimate unknown black hole masses. For radio-dim (L_<10**39 erg/s), X-ray bright (L_x>10**43 erg/s) sources, which are primarily Seyferts, the X-ray emission mechanism is not accounted for by pure ADAFs and radio activities are likely to be similar to those of the radio-quiet AGN.
X-ray Bright Active Galactic Nuclei in Massive Galaxy Clusters I: Number Counts and Spatial Distribution  [PDF]
S. Ehlert,S. W. Allen,W. N. Brandt,Y. Q. Xue,B. Luo,A. von der Linden,A. Mantz,R. G. Morris
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts288
Abstract: We present an analysis of the X-ray bright point source population in 43 massive clusters of galaxies observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have constructed a catalog of 4210 rigorously selected X-ray point sources in these fields, which span a survey area of 4.2 square degrees. This catalog reveals a clear excess of sources when compared to deep blank-field surveys, which amounts to roughly 1 additional source per cluster, likely Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) associated with the clusters. The excess sources are concentrated within the virial radii of the clusters, with the largest excess observed near the cluster centers. The average radial profile of the excess X-ray sources of the cluster are well described by a power law (N(r) ~ r^\beta) with an index of \beta ~ -0.5. An initial analysis using literature results on the mean profile of member galaxies in massive X-ray selected clusters indicates that the fraction of galaxies hosting X-ray AGN rises with increasing clustercentric radius, being approximately 5 to 10 times higher near the virial radius than in the central regions. This trend is qualitatively similar to that observed for star formation in cluster member galaxies.
Single-epoch VLBI imaging study of bright active galactic nuclei at 2 and 8 GHz  [PDF]
A. B. Pushkarev,Y. Y. Kovalev
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219352
Abstract: We investigate statistical and individual astrophysical properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), such as parsec-scale flux density, core dominance, angular and linear sizes, maximum observed brightness temperatures of VLBI core components, spectral index distributions for core and jet components, and evolution of brightness temperature along the jets. Furthermore, we statistically compare core flux densities and brightness temperature as well as jet spectral indices of gamma-ray bright and weak sources. We used 19 very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observing sessions carried out simultaneously at 2.3 and 8.6 GHz with the participation of 10 Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) stations and up to 10 additional geodetic telescopes. The observations span the period 1998-2003. We present here single-epoch results from high-resolution radio observations of 370 AGNs. Our VLBI images at 2.3 and 8.6 GHz as well as Gaussian models are presented and analyzed. At least one-fourth of the cores are completely unresolved on the longest baselines of the global VLBI observations. The VLBI core components are partially opaque with the median value of spectral index of alpha_core=0.3, while the jet features are usually optically thin alpha_jet=-0.7. The spectral index typically decreases along the jet ridge line owing to the spectral aging, with a median value of -0.05 mas^-1. Brightness temperatures are found to be affected by Doppler boosting and reaching up to \sim10^13 K with a median of \sim2.5x10^11 K at both frequencies. The brightness temperature gradients along the jets typically follow a power law T_b\simr^-2.2 at both frequencies. 147 sources (40%) positionally associated with gamma-ray detections from the Fermi LAT Second Source Catalog have higher core flux densities and brightness temperatures, and are characterized by the less steep radio spectrum of the optically thin jet emission.
The Halo Occupation Distribution of X-ray-Bright Active Galactic Nuclei: A Comparison with Luminous Quasars  [PDF]
Jonathan W. Richardson,Suchetana Chatterjee,Zheng Zheng,Adam Myers,Ryan C. Hickox
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/774/2/143
Abstract: We perform halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of high-redshift (z~1.2) X-ray-bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the XMM-COSMOS field measured by Allevato et al. The HOD parameterization is based on low-luminosity AGN in cosmological simulations. At the median redshift of z~1.2, we derive a median mass of (1.02+0.21/-0.23)x10^{13} Msun/h for halos hosting central AGN and an upper limit of ~10% on the AGN satellite fraction. Our modeling results indicate (at the 2.5-sigma level) that X-ray AGN reside in more massive halos compared to more bolometrically luminous, optically-selected quasars at similar redshift. The modeling also yields constraints on the duty cycle of the X-ray AGN, and we find that at z~1.2 the average duration of the X-ray AGN phase is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the quasar phase. Our inferred mean occupation function of X-ray AGN is similar to recent empirical measurements with a group catalog and suggests that AGN halo occupancy increases with increasing halo mass. We project the XMM-COSMOS 2PCF measurements to forecast the required survey parameters needed in future AGN clustering studies to enable higher precision HOD constraints and determinations of key physical parameters like the satellite fraction and duty cycle. We find that N^{2}/A~5x10^{6} deg^{-2} (with N the number of AGN in a survey area of A deg^{2}) is sufficient to constrain the HOD parameters at the 10% level, which is easily achievable by upcoming and proposed X-ray surveys.
Monitoring of active galactic nuclei. V. The Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 279  [PDF]
G. M. Stirpe
Physics , 1993,
Abstract: We report on the Lovers of Active Galaxies' (LAG) monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 279 from January to June 1990. The source, which was in a very bright state, gradually weakened after the first month of monitoring: the H-Alpha and H-Beta flux decreased by 20% and 35% respectively, and the continuum under H-Alpha by 30%. The luminosity-weighted radius of the broad line region (BLR), as derived from the cross-correlation function, is of the order of 10 light days. This result is very uncertain because the features in the light curves are very shallow, but it is unlikely that the radius of the BLR is more than 1 light month. The profile variations of H-Alpha confirm that the prevailing motions are not radial. The data of the present campaign and those obtained in previous years, when the source was in a much weaker state, show that the red asymmetry of the Balmer lines correlates positively with the broad line flux. This new effect is briefly discussed.
Spectral Survey of X-Ray Bright Active Galactic Nuclei from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer  [PDF]
Elizabeth Rivers,Alex Markowitz,Richard Rothschild
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/193/1/3
Abstract: Using long-term monitoring data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have selected 23 active galactic nuclei (AGN) with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to derive broadband X-ray spectra from 3 to >100 keV. Our sample includes mainly radio-quiet Seyferts, as well as seven radio-loud sources. Given the longevity of the RXTE mission, the greater part of our data is spread out over more than a decade, providing truly long-term average spectra and eliminating inconsistencies arising from variability. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line parameters, Compton reflection strengths and photon indices, as well as fluxes and luminosities for the hard and very hard energy bands, 2-10 keV and 20-100 keV respectively. We find tentative evidence for high-energy rollovers in three of our objects. We improve upon previous surveys of the very hard X-ray energy band in terms of accuracy and sensitivity, particularly with respect to confirming and quantifying the Compton reflection component. This survey is meant to provide a baseline for future analysis with respect to the long-term averages for these sources and to cement the legacy of RXTE, and especially its High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment, as a contributor to AGN spectral science.
Estimating Supermassive Black Hole Mass Through Radio/X-Ray Luminosity Relation of X-Ray Bright Galactic Nuclei  [PDF]
Heon-Young Chang,Chul-Sung Choi,Insu Yi
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: It has been suggested that optically thin and geometrically thick accretion flows are responsible for the observed radio/X-ray luminosity relation of the X-ray bright galactic nuclei. If this is the case then central supermassive black hole masses can be estimated directly from measurements of the core radio luminosity and the X-ray luminosity, provided that properties of such accretion flows are known. Calculated ratios of the luminosities are presented in cases of the standard ADAF model and modified ADAF models, in which a truncation of inner parts of the flows and winds causing a reduction of the infalling matter are included. We compare the observed ratio of the luminosities with predictions from models of optically thin accretion flows. We also discuss the possible effects of the convection in ADAFs. We confirm that the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass estimate is possible with the radio/X-ray luminosity relation due to ADAF models in the absence of a radio jet. We find that observational data are insufficient to distinguish the standard ADAF model from its modified models. However, the ADAF model with convection is inconsistent with observations, unless microphysics parameters are to be substantially changed. High resolution radio observations are required to avoid the contamination of other components, such as, a jet component. Otherwise, the SMBH mass is inclined to be over-estimated.
Active Galactic Nuclei Discovered in the Kepler Mission  [PDF]
Edward J. Shaya,Robert Olling,Richard Mushotzky
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/150/6/188
Abstract: We report on candidate active galactic nuclei (AGN) discovered during the monitoring of $\sim$500 bright (r < 18 mag) galaxies over several years with the Kepler Mission. Most of the targets were sampled every 30 minutes nearly continuously for a year or more. Variations of 0.001 mag and often less could be detected reliably. About 4.0% (19) of our random sample continuously fluctuated with amplitudes increasing with longer timescales, but the majority are close to the limits of detectability with Kepler. We discuss our techniques to mitigate the long term instrumental trends in Kepler light curves and our resulting structure function curves. The amplitudes of variability over four month periods, as seen in the structure functions and PSDs, can dramatically change for many of these AGN candidates. Four of the candidates have features in their Structure Functions that may indicate quasi-periodic behavior, although other possibilities are discussed.
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