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Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
Kevin J. Meagher
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1117/12.2054979
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next major ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy. With CTA gamma-ray sources will be studied in the very-high energy gamma-ray range of a few tens of GeV to 100 TeV with up to ten times better sensitivity than available with current generation instruments. We discuss the proposed US contribution to CTA that comprises imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics. Key features of the SC telescope are a wide field of view of eight degrees, a finely pixelated camera with silicon photomultipliers as photon detectors, and a compact and power efficient 1 GS/s readout. The progress in both the optical system and camera development are discussed in this paper.
Schwarzschild-Couder telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: Development of the Optical System  [PDF]
Julien Rousselle,Valerie Connaughton,Manel Errando,Brian Humensky,Reshmi Mukherjee,Daniel Nieto,Akira Okumura,Vladimir Vassiliev,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1117/12.2028873
Abstract: The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is the next generation ground-based experiment for very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations. It will integrate several tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) with different apertures into a single astronomical instrument. The US part of the CTA collaboration has proposed and is developing a novel IACT design with a Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) aplanatic two mirror optical system. In comparison with the traditional single mirror Davies-Cotton IACT the SC telescope, by design, can accommodate a wide field-of-view, with significantly improved imaging resolution. In addition, the reduced plate scale of an SC telescope makes it compatible with highly integrated cameras assembled from silicon photo multipliers. In this submission we report on the status of the development of the SC optical system, which is part of the effort to construct a full-scale prototype telescope of this type at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona.
Construction of a Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: status of the optical system  [PDF]
J. Rousselle,K. Byrum,R. Cameron,V. Connaughton,M. Errando,V. Guarino,T. B. Humensky,P. Jenke,D. Kieda,R. Mukherjee,D. Nieto,A. Okumura,A Petrashyk,V. Vassiliev,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present the design and the status of procurement of the optical system of the prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT), for which construction is scheduled to begin in fall at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA. The Schwarzschild-Couder telescope is a candidate for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, which utilizes imaging atmospheric Cherenkov techniques to observe gamma rays in the energy range of 60Gev-60TeV. The pSCT novel aplanatic optical system is made of two segmented aspheric mirrors. The primary mirror has 48 mirror panels with an aperture of 9.6 m, while the secondary, made of 24 panels, has an diameter of 5.4 m. The resulting point spread function (PSF) is required to be better than 4 arcmin within a field of view of 6.4 degrees (80% of the field of view), which corresponds to a physical size of 6.4 mm on the focal plane. This goal represents a challenge for the inexpensive fabrication of aspheric mirror panels and for the precise alignment of the optical system as well as for the rigidity of the optical support structure. In this submission we introduce the design of the Schwarzschild-Couder optical system and describe the solutions adopted for the manufacturing of the mirror panels and their integration with the optical support structure.
A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
K. Byrum,T. B. Humensky,W. Benbow,R. Cameron,S. Criswell,M. Errando,V. Guarino,P. Kaaret,D. Kieda,R. Mukherjee,D. Naumann,D. Nieto,R. Northrop,A. Okumura,E. Roache,J. Rousselle,S. Schlenstedt,R. Sternberger,V. Vassiliev,S. Wakely,H. Zhao,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.
Construction of a medium-sized Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: development of the optical alignment system  [PDF]
D. Nieto,S. Griffiths,B. Humensky,P. Kaaret,M. Limon,I. Mognet,A. Peck,A. Petrashyk,D. Ribeiro,J. Rousselle,B. Stevenson,V. Vassiliev,P. Yu,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-size candidate telescope model features a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of a wide field-of-view with significantly improved imaging resolution as compared to the traditional Davis-Cotton optics design. Achieving this imaging resolution imposes strict alignment requirements to be accomplished by a dedicated alignment system. In this contribution we present the status of the development of the SC optical alignment system, soon to be materialized in a full-scale prototype SC medium-size telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona.
Construction of a Medium-Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: Implementation of the Cherenkov-Camera Data Acquisition System  [PDF]
M. Santander,J. Buckley,B. Humensky,R. Mukherjee,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A medium-sized Schwarzchild-Couder Telescope (SCT) is being developed as a possible extension for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The Cherenkov camera of the telescope is designed to have 11328 silicon photomultiplier pixels capable of capturing high-resolution images of air showers in the atmosphere. The combination of the large number of pixels and the high trigger rate (> 5 kHz) expected for this telescope results in a multi-Gbps data throughput. This sets challenging requirements on the design and performance of a data acquisition system for processing and storing this data. A prototype SCT (pSCT) with a partial camera containing 1600 pixels, covering a field of view of 2.5 x 2.5 square degrees, is being assembled at the F.L. Whipple Observatory. We present the design and current status of the SCT data acquisition system.
Evaluation of the optical cross talk level in the SiPMs adopted in ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov Camera using EASIROC front-end electronics  [PDF]
D. Impiombato,S. Giarrusso,T. Mineo,G. Agnetta,B. Biondo,O. Catalano,C. Gargano,G. La Rosa,F. Russo,G. Sottile,M. Belluso,S. Billotta,G. Bonanno,S. Garozzo,D. Marano,G. Romeo
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/9/02/C02015
Abstract: ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana), is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end prototype of the Small Size of Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, will adopt a wide field dual mirror optical system in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration to explore the VHE range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The camera at the focal plane is based on Silicon Photo-Multipliers detectors which is an innovative solution for the detection astronomical Cherenkov light. This contribution reports some preliminary results on the evaluation of the optical cross talk level among the SiPM pixels foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M camera.
Silicon Photomultiplier Camera for Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescopes  [PDF]
J. Vandenbroucke,for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an atmospheric Cherenkov observatory that will image the cosmos in very-high-energy gamma rays. CTA will study the highest-energy particle accelerators in the Universe and potentially confirm the particle nature of dark matter. We have designed an innovative Schwarzschild-Couder telescope which uses two mirrors to achieve excellent optical performance across a wide field of view. The small plate scale of the dual-mirror optics enables a compact camera which uses modern technology including silicon photomultipliers and the TARGET application-specific integrated circuit to read out a finely pixelated focal plane of 11,328 channels with modest weight, volume, cost, and power consumption. The camera design is hierarchical and modular at each level, enabling robust construction, operation, and maintenance. A prototype telescope is under construction and will be commissioned at the VERITAS site in Arizona. An array of such telescopes will provide excellent angular resolution and sensitivity in the core energy range of CTA, from 100 GeV to 10 TeV.
INFN Camera demonstrator for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
G. Ambrosi,M. Ambrosio,C. Aramo,B. Bertucci,E. Bissaldi,M. Bitossi,S. Brasolin,G. Busetto,R. Carosi,S. Catalanotti,M. A. Ciocci,R. Consoletti,P. Da Vela,F. Dazzi,A. De Angelis,B. De Lotto,F. de Palma,R. Desiante,T. Di Girolamo,C. Di Giulio,M. Doro,D. D'Urso,G. Ferraro,F. Ferrarotto,F. Gargano,N. Giglietto,F. Giordano,G. Giraudo,M. Iacovacci,M. Ionica,M. Iori,F. Longo,M. Mariotti,S. Mastroianni,M. Minuti,A. Morselli,R. Paoletti,G. Pauletta,R. Rando,G. Rodriguez Fernandez,A. Rugliancich,D. Simone,C. Stella,A. Tonachini,P. Vallania,L. Valore,V. Vagelli,V. Verzi,C. Vigorito
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array is a world-wide project for a new generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes of the Imaging class with the aim of exploring the highest energy region of the electromagnetic spectrum. With two planned arrays, one for each hemisphere, it will guarantee a good sky coverage in the energy range from a few tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV, with improved angular resolution and a sensitivity in the TeV energy region better by one order of magnitude than the currently operating arrays. In order to cover this wide energy range, three different telescope types are envisaged, with different mirror sizes and focal plane features. In particular, for the highest energies a possible design is a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, with a compact focal plane. A silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based camera is being proposed as a solution to match the dimensions of the pixel (angular size of ~ 0.17 degrees). INFN is developing a camera demonstrator made by 9 Photo Sensor Modules (PSMs, 64 pixels each, with total coverage 1/4 of the focal plane) equipped with FBK (Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy) Near UltraViolet High Fill factor SiPMs and Front-End Electronics (FEE) based on a Target 7 ASIC, a 16 channels fast sampler (up to 2GS/s) with deep buffer, self-trigger and on-demand digitization capabilities specifically developed for this purpose. The pixel dimensions of $6\times6$ mm$^2$ lead to a very compact design with challenging problems of thermal dissipation. A modular structure, made by copper frames hosting one PSM and the corresponding FEE, has been conceived, with a water cooling system to keep the required working temperature. The actual design, the adopted technical solutions and the achieved results for this demonstrator are presented and discussed.
The dual-mirror Small Size Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  [PDF]
G. Pareschi,G. Agnetta,L. A. Antonelli,D. Bastieri,G. Bellassai,M. Belluso,C. Bigongiari,S. Billotta,B. Biondo,G. Bonanno,G. Bonnoli,P. Bruno,A. Bulgarelli,R. Canestrari,M. Capalbi,P. Caraveo,A. Carosi,E. Cascone,O. Catalano,M. Cereda,P. Conconi,V. Conforti,G. Cusumano,V. De Caprio,A. De Luca,A. Di Paola,F. Di Pierro,D. Fantinel,M. Fiorini,D. Fugazza,D. Gardiol,M. Ghigo,F. Gianotti,S. Giarrusso,E. Giro,A. Grillo,D. Impiombato,S. Incorvaia,A. La Barbera,N. La Palombara,V. La Parola,G. La Rosa,L. Lessio,G. Leto,S. Lombardi,F. Lucarelli,M. C. Maccarone,G. Malaguti,G. Malaspina,V. Mangano,D. Marano,E. Martinetti,R. Millul,T. Mineo,A. Mistò,C. Morello,G. Morlino,M. R. Panzera,G. Rodeghiero,P. Romano,F. Russo,B. Sacco,N. Sartore,J. Schwarz,A. Segreto,G. Sironi,G. Sottile,A. Stamerra,E. Strazzeri,L. Stringhetti,G. Tagliaferri,V. Testa,M. C. Timpanaro,G. Toso,G. Tosti,M. Trifoglio,P. Vallania,S. Vercellone,V. Zitelli,For The Astri Collaboration,J. P. Amans,C. Boisson,C. Costille,J. L. Dournaux,D. Dumas,G. Fasola,O. Hervet,J. M. Huet,P. Laporte,C. Rulten,H. Sol,A. Zech,For The Gate Collaboration,R. White,J. Hinton,D. Ross,J. Sykes,S. Ohm,J. Schmoll,P. Chadwick,T. Greenshaw,M. Daniel,G. Cotter,G. S. Varner,S. Funk,J. Vandenbroucke,L. Sapozhnikov,J. Buckley,P. Moore,D. Williams,S. Markoff,J. Vink,D. Berge,N. Hidaka,A. Okumura,H. Tajima,For The Chec Collaboration,For The Cta Consortium
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, the development of the dual mirror Small Size Telescopes (SST) for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is reviewed. Up to 70 SST, with a primary mirror diameter of 4 m, will be produced and installed at the CTA southern site. These will allow investigation of the gamma-ray sky at the highest energies accessible to CTA, in the range from about 1 TeV to 300 TeV. The telescope presented in this contribution is characterized by two major innovations: the use of a dual mirror Schwarzschild-Couder configuration and of an innovative camera using as sensors either multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPM) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The reduced plate-scale of the telescope, achieved with the dual-mirror optics, allows the camera to be compact (40 cm in diameter), and low-cost. The camera, which has about 2000 pixels of size 6x6 mm^2, covers a field of view of 10{\deg}. The dual mirror telescopes and their cameras are being developed by three consortia, ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana, Italy/INAF), GATE (Gamma-ray Telescope Elements, France/Paris Observ.) and CHEC (Compact High Energy Camera, universities in UK, US and Japan) which are merging their efforts in order to finalize an end-to-end design that will be constructed for CTA. A number of prototype structures and cameras are being developed in order to investigate various alternative designs. In this contribution, these designs are presented, along with the technological solutions under study.
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